Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott

green-dragon

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Green-dragon is native to western New England and much of the eastern half of the United States. It inhabits rich mesic forests.

Habitat

Floodplain (river or stream floodplains), forests, shores of rivers or lakes

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
Leaf arrangement
basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Leaf blade shape
  • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
  • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
  • the leaf blade is oblanceolate (lance-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
Leaf blade length
Up to 280 mm
Flower petal color
NA
Flower petal length
0 mm
Petal fusion
NA
Inflorescence type
  • the inflorescence differs from the choices given
  • the inflorescence is a spike (a long unbranched stem with flowers along it that lack stalks)
Ovary position
the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
Fruit type (specific)
the fruit is a berry (fleshy, with the wall enclosing one or more sections, with two or more seeds)
Fruit length
7–13 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Clonal plantlets
    Axillary bulblets
    there are no bulblets being produced in axils
  • Flowers
    Anther attachment
    the anther is attached by its base to the filament
    Bulblets replace flowers
    there are no bulblets where the flowers are located
    Carpels fused
    NA
    Flower bract length
    0 mm
    Flower bracts
    there are no bracts associated with the flower
    Flower number
    3–900
    Flower orientation
    the flowers point upward or spread or curve outward
    Flower petal color
    NA
    Flower petal length
    0 mm
    Flower shape
    NA
    Flower symmetry
    NA
    Form of style
    the style is knob-like at the tip, and unbranched
    Fringed petal edges
    NA
    Hairs on flower stalk
    NA
    Inflorescence hair glands
    the axis of the inflorescence has no hairs on it
    Inflorescence length
    60–200 mm
    Inflorescence type
    • the inflorescence differs from the choices given
    • the inflorescence is a spike (a long unbranched stem with flowers along it that lack stalks)
    Length of flower stalk
    0 mm
    Marks on petals
    NA
    Nectar spur
    the flower has no nectar spurs
    Number of carpels
    1
    Number of pistils
    1
    Number of sepals and/or petals
    NA
    Number of styles
    1
    Ovary position
    the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes neither petals nor sepals
    Petal appearance
    NA
    Petal base
    NA
    Petal fusion
    NA
    Petal hairs on inner/upper surface
    NA
    Petal nectaries
    NA
    Sepal appearance
    NA
    Sepal length
    0 mm
    Sepal orientation
    NA
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    NA
    Spathe
    the plant has a spathe surrounding the flower spike
    Spathe form
    the spathe encloses or nearly encloses the spike of flowers
    Spathe length
    30–120 mm
    Stamen number
    • 1 or 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Stamen position relative to petals
    NA
    Stamens fused
    the stamens are not fused to one another
    Stamens fused outwards
    NA
    Style petal-like
    the style is not broad and flattened like a petal
    Tepals
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Berry color
    • orange
    • red
    Capsule ridges
    NA
    Fruit beak length
    0 mm
    Fruit compartments
    there is only one locule in the fruit
    Fruit cross-section
    the fruit is round in cross-section
    Fruit length
    7–13 mm
    Fruit stalk orientation
    NA
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is fleshy
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a berry (fleshy, with the wall enclosing one or more sections, with two or more seeds)
    Other markings on berry
    the ripe fruits are mostly one color without spots or streaks
  • Glands or sap
    Sap
    the sap is milky and opaque, and may be white or colored
  • Growth form
    Lifespan
    the plant lives more than two years
    Root septa
    the roots do not have transverse septa
    Underground organs
    • the plant has one or more swollen storage organs underground, such as bulbs, tubers or corms
    • there are only slender roots on the plant
  • Leaves
    Hairs on underside of leaf blade
    the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Leaf arrangement
    basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
    Leaf blade basal lobes
    the leaf blades do not have basal lobes
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf has a distinct leaf stalk (petiole)
    Leaf blade base shape
    • the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    • the base of the leaf blade is rounded
    Leaf blade bloom
    the underside of the leaf blade has no noticeable waxy or powdery bloom
    Leaf blade cross-section
    the leaf blade is more or less flat in cross-section
    Leaf blade faces
    both surfaces of the leaf blade are exposed
    Leaf blade form
    Fully-formed (i.e., expanded), +/- green leaf blades are found somewhere on the plant
    Leaf blade length
    Up to 280 mm
    Leaf blade orientation
    the upper surface of the leaf blade faces the stem of the plant
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is oblanceolate (lance-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
    Leaf blade surface colors
    the upper side of the leaf blade is relatively uniform in color
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    Leaf blade veins
    the lateral veins are palmate, (and do not arch towards the leaf tip) or pinnate
    Leaf blade width
    Up to 100 mm
    Leaf stalk length
    200–500 mm
    Leaf type
    the leaves are compound with two or more leaflets on each leaf stalk
    Leaflet number
    5–21
    Stipule twining
    NA
    Stipules
    there are no stipules on this plant
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    • New Hampshire
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • forests
    • river or stream floodplains
    • shores of rivers or lakes
  • Scent
    Plant odor
    the leaves have no particular smell
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Flowering stem growth form
    the flowering stem is held upright
    Flowering stem leaves
    there are no true leaves on the flowering stem
    Stem hairs
    NA

Wetland Status

Usually occurs in wetlands, but occasionally in non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACW)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
fairly widespread (S-rank: S4)
Massachusetts
rare (S-rank: S2), threatened (code: T)
New Hampshire
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)
Vermont
rare (S-rank: S2), threatened (code: T)

Native to North America?

Yes

Synonyms

  • Muricauda dracontium (L.) Small

Family

Araceae

Genus

Arisaema

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott N

green-dragon. Muricauda dracontium (L.) Small • CT, MA, NH, VT. Rich, mesic forests, 
riparian forests.

1×2c.  This very rare Jack-in-the-pulpit hybrid is known from MA. It is usually larger 
than either parent and has 5- to 7-foliate leaf blades with elliptic or broad-elliptic 
to broad-oblanceolate leaflets (the leaflets of Arisaema dracontium are narrower—narrow-lanceolate or narrow-elliptic to oblanceolate or elliptic). The hybrid has a 
spadix that shortly exceeds the spathe, the latter of which is green with purple near 
the apex and is mostly 5.1–10.5 cm long.