Bidens eatonii Fern.

Eaton's beggar-ticks

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Found in fresh to brackish tidal river shores in Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maine, Eaton's beggar ticks is globally rare. Within New England it is represented by only a few populations.

Habitat

Brackish or salt marshes and flats, fresh tidal marshes or flats

Characteristics

Habitat
  • aquatic
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
Leaf type
leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement
opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
  • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
  • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
Flower type in flower heads
  • the flower head has disk flowers only, and lacks the strap-shaped flowers
  • the flower head has tubular disk flowers in the center and ray flowers, these often strap-shaped, around the periphery
Ray flower color
  • orange
  • yellow
Tuft or plume on fruit
there is no plume, or the plume is made up of scales, awns, a crown, or a rim
Spines on plant
the plant has no spines
Leaf blade length
20–100 mm
Flower head width
5–12 mm
Disk flower number
  • 11-20
  • 21-50
  • 6-10
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Bases of bract appendages
    NA
    Bract cycle number
    there are two main cycles of bracts
    Bract margins
    there are fine hairs along the bract margins
    Bract outer side hair type
    the bracts are not hairy on their outer surface
    Bract outer side hairs
    the bracts are not hairy on their outer surfaces
    Bract separation
    • at least some flower heads have bracts connected to one another at or near their bases
    • the bracts appear completely unconnected to one another on all flower heads
    Bract shape
    • the main bracts are lanceolate (widest above the base, then taper narrowly towards the tip)
    • the main bracts are oblong (roughly rectangular but rounded at the ends)
    • the main bracts are ovate (egg-shaped)
    Bract spines
    the bracts have no spines
    Bract texture
    • the bracts appear thin, flexible and nearly translucent
    • the bracts have a similar texture to a leaf
    Bracts
    there are at least two distinct forms of bracts in different cycles
    Disk flower color
    yellow
    Disk flower lobe number
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Disk flower number
    • 11-20
    • 21-50
    • 6-10
    Disk flower reproductive parts
    the disk flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts
    Disk flower shape
    the disk flower is tube-shaped (cylindrical), or gradually widening like a funnel
    Disk width
    3–10 mm
    Flower head number
    • each flowering stem has four or more flower heads on it
    • each flowering stem has only one to three flower heads on it
    Flower head outer flowers
    • at the outer edge of the flower head, each flower has a single enlarged lobe or strap
    • at the outer edge of the flower head, the flowers have no enlarged lobe or strap, and are of similar size as those in the center of the disk
    Flower head platform
    the base has papery scales on it
    Flower head position
    • each of the flower heads is separate on its own peduncle (stalk), not clustered in groups
    • some or all the flower heads are grouped in clusters of two or more
    Flower head profile
    • the disk is flat or nearly flat across the top
    • the disk is rounded across the top
    Flower head shape
    • the flower head is hemispherical (like the bottom half of a sphere)
    • the sides of the flower head are roughly parallel, like a cylinder
    Flower head width
    5–12 mm
    Flower type in flower heads
    • the flower head has disk flowers only, and lacks the strap-shaped flowers
    • the flower head has tubular disk flowers in the center and ray flowers, these often strap-shaped, around the periphery
    Height of flower head base
    4–12 mm
    Inflorescence branching (Solidago)
    NA
    Inflorescence shape
    NA
    Number of bracts at flower head base
    7–11
    Ovary beak
    there is no beak on the ovary
    Ovary cross-section
    the ovary is compressed (flattened)
    Ovary hair type
    the ovary has no hairs on it
    Ovary hairs
    the ovary has no hairs on it
    Ovary lines or ribs
    there is one line or rib visible on the ovary
    Ovary profile
    in profile, the ovary is lance-shaped, but widest above the middle
    Ovary surface
    the ovary surface has no points, bumps or wrinkles, though it may have lines, ribs or wings
    Peduncle length
    10–35 mm
    Ray flower color
    • orange
    • yellow
    Ray flower reproductive parts
    there are neither carpels nor stamens in the ray flowers
    Ray flowers
    • 0
    • 1-5
    Ray length
    0–10 mm
    Reproductive system
    all the flowers on the plant contain both carpels and stamens
    Scale tip
    the scales are blunt, with a terminal notch, or straight across the top
    Smaller bracts at base of bracts
    there is no smaller, outer cycle of bracts
    Style branch number
    the style has two branches
    Style branches
    the style branch is narrow at the tip, or the style branches are narrow at the tips
    Width of flower head base
    4–9 mm
  • Fruits or seeds
    Number of pappus parts
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Ovary beak length
    0 mm
    Ovary length in developed fruit
    5.5–11 mm
    Seed hair tuft details
    the pappus hairs are hooked or barbed
    Seed hair tuft length
    3–4.5 mm
    Seed hair tuft tips
    the pappus hairs are slender
    Seed hairs uniform
    all the pappus hairs are approximately the same length
    Seed tuft scale number
    0
    Seed tuft type
    the pappus is made of stiff, tapering bristles
    Top of disk flower ovary
    the top of the ovary in fruit is flattened
    Tuft or plume on fruit
    there is no plume, or the plume is made up of scales, awns, a crown, or a rim
  • Glands or sap
    Bract resin
    the bracts have no resin or resin glands
    Leaf blade glands
    the leaf blades have no glandular (translucent) dots or scales
    Sap
    the sap is clear and watery
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    the plant has one or more free-standing stems
    Plant lifespan
    the plant is annual, it lacks evidence of previous years' growth
    Spines on plant
    the plant has no spines
  • Leaves
    Final leaf segment length (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Final leaf segment width (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Hairs on underside of leaf blade
    the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Leaf arrangement
    opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf has a distinct petiole
    Leaf blade base shape
    the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    Leaf blade edges
    • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
    • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
    Leaf blade flatness
    the leaf is flat (planar) at the edges
    Leaf blade hairs
    NA
    Leaf blade length
    20–100 mm
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    Leaf blade width
    5–25 mm
    Leaf disposition
    the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have leaf stalks
    Leaf stalk length
    10–40 mm
    Leaf tip extension
    NA
    Leaf type
    leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
  • Place
    Habitat
    • aquatic
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    Specific habitat
    • brackish or salt marshes and flats
    • fresh tidal marshes or flats
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Flowering stem cross-section
    the flowering stem is circular, or with lots of small angles
    Leaves on stem
    there is at least one full leaf above the base of the flowering stem
    Stem internode hair direction
    NA
    Stem internode hair length
    0 mm
    Stem internode hair type
    the stem has no hairs between the nodes
    Stem internode hairs
    the stem has no hairs between the nodes

Wetland Status

Occurs only in wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: OBL)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
absent

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), threatened (code: T)
Maine
rare (S-rank: S2), special concern (code: SC)
Massachusetts
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Bidens hyperborea:
leaf blades sessile and body of cypsela with a convex, cartilaginous apex (vs. B. eatonii, with leaf blades petioled and body of cypsela truncate at the apex).
Bidens connata:
body of cypsela compressed quadrangular to (rarely) almost flat, with few or no striations, usually with minute tuberculae, capitula with mostly 20-60 flowers, and plants of a variety of habitats, including tidal river shores (vs. B. eatonii, with body of cypsela +/- flat, usually striate on each face, lacking tuberculae, capitula with mostly 12-25 flowers, and plants restricted to tidal river shores).

Synonyms

  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. fallax Fern.
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. interstes Fassett
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. kennebecensis Fern.
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. major Fassett
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. mutabilis Fassett
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. var. simulans Fassett
  • Bidens heterodoxa (Fern.) Fern. & St. John var. atheistica Fern.

Family

Asteraceae

Genus

Bidens

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

8.  Bidens eatonii Fern. NC

Eaton’s beggar-ticks. Bidens eatonii Fern. var. fallax Fern.; B. eatonii Fern. var. interstes Fassett; B. eatonii Fern. var. kennebecensis Fern.; B. eatonii Fern. var. major Fassett; B. eatonii Fern. 
var. mutabilis Fassett; B eatonii Fern. var. simulans Fassett; B. heterodoxa (Fern.) Fern. & 
St. John var. atheistica Fern. • CT, MA, ME. Fresh to brackish-tidal river shores. The report of this species from RI by Magee and Ahles (1999) is based on a specimen of Bidens connata—
23 Sep 1929, Leland s.n. ( NEBC!). Bidens heterodoxa has been a problematic taxon. Study revealed that it was comprised of two different, previously described taxa (as to New England plants) amalgamated together into one artificial taxon (Roberts 1982). Collections from the Kennebec River in ME are referable to B. eatonii. Collections from Pocotopaug Lake in CT are referable to B. tripartita. Bidens eatonii infrequently has a low, ± yellow dome at the summit of the mature ovary (not as strongly developed as in B. cernua and relatives).

6×8. Bidens connata × Bidens eatonii Bidens ×‌multiceps Fassett is a rare beggar-ticks hybrid known from fresh-tidal river shores in MA. Collections show variation in cypsela cross-section ranging from compressed-quadrangular to flat (displaying the variation between both parental taxa).