Boltonia asteroides (L.) L'Hér.

white doll's-daisy

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Two varieties of white doll's-daisy occur in New England, distinguished by the width of both the involucral bracts and the leaves near the base of the capitulescence. The genus Boltonia is named after the English naturalist and illustrator James Bolton (1735–1799), who wrote and illustrated the first english-language work on fungi, "An History of Fungusses growing about Halifax."

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats)

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Leaf type
leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement
  • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
  • basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Leaf blade edges
the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes
Flower type in flower heads
the flower head has tubular disk flowers in the center and ray flowers, these often strap-shaped, around the periphery
Ray flower color
  • blue to purple
  • white
Tuft or plume on fruit
there is no plume, or the plume is made up of scales, awns, a crown, or a rim
Spines on plant
the plant has no spines
Leaf blade length
20–220 mm
Flower head width
22–38 mm
Disk flower number
more than 50
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Bract cycle number
    there are three or more cycles of bracts
    Bract inner side hairs
    the bracts are not hairy on their inner surfaces
    Bract outer side hair type
    the bracts are not hairy on their outer surface
    Bract outer side hairs
    the bracts are not hairy on their outer surfaces
    Bract shape
    • the main bracts are linear (long and very narrow)
    • the main bracts are oblanceolate (widest near the tip, but otherwise narrow and tapering)
    • the main bracts are oblong (roughly rectangular but rounded at the ends)
    • the main bracts are of a different shape than the given options
    Bract spines
    the bracts have no spines
    Bract texture
    • the bracts appear thin, flexible and nearly translucent
    • the bracts have a similar texture to a leaf
    Bract tip color
    the tips are a different color from the center of the bract
    Bract tip orientation
    • the bracts are pressed against the plant, or spreading out at the tips
    • the tips of the bracts curve outwards and downwards from the plant
    Bract tip shape
    • the tips of the bracts acute (have a sharp point)
    • the tips of the bracts are obtuse (have a blunt point)
    • the tips of the bracts are rounded
    Bract width
    0.5–2
    Bracts
    the bracts in separate cycles are similar or gradually changing from the outer to inner cycles
    Disk flower color
    yellow
    Disk flower lobe number
    5
    Disk flower number
    more than 50
    Disk flower reproductive parts
    the disk flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts
    Disk flower shape
    the disk flower is tube-shaped (cylindrical), or gradually widening like a funnel
    Disk width
    6–10 mm
    Flower head number
    each flowering stem has four or more flower heads on it
    Flower head outer flowers
    at the outer edge of the flower head, each flower has a single enlarged lobe or strap
    Flower head platform
    the base has no bristles or papery scales
    Flower head platform surface
    NA
    Flower head profile
    • the disk is conical across the top
    • the disk is flat or nearly flat across the top
    Flower head shape
    the flower head is hemispherical (like the bottom half of a sphere)
    Flower head width
    22–38 mm
    Flower type in flower heads
    the flower head has tubular disk flowers in the center and ray flowers, these often strap-shaped, around the periphery
    Height of flower head base
    3–5 mm
    Inflorescence branching (Solidago)
    NA
    Inflorescence shape
    • the inflorescence is flat-topped in profile
    • the inflorescence is not flat-topped but appears rounded, with some flower heads distinctly higher than others
    Inflorescence stem
    the stem of the inflorescence is not hairy
    Number of bracts at flower head base
    30–55
    Ovary cross-section
    • the ovary has five or more corners in cross-section
    • the ovary is compressed (flattened)
    Ovary hair type
    the ovary has hairs on it, but the hairs have no glands
    Ovary hairs
    the ovary has hairs on it
    Ovary lines or ribs
    there are two lines or ribs visible on the ovary
    Ovary profile
    • in profile, the ovary is another shape
    • in profile, the ovary is roughly egg-shaped, but widest above the middle
    Peduncle length
    5–220 mm
    Ray flower color
    • blue to purple
    • white
    Ray flower reproductive parts
    there are neither carpels nor stamens in the ray flowers
    Ray flowers
    • 16-25
    • 26-50
    • more than 50
    Ray length
    5–13 mm
    Reproductive system
    some of the flowers on the plant have only carpels or stamens, while others have both carpels and stamens
    Scale tip
    NA
    Smaller bracts at base of bracts
    there is no smaller, outer cycle of bracts
    Style branch number
    the style has two branches
    Style branches
    the style branch is narrow at the tip, or the style branches are narrow at the tips
    Width of flower head base
    6–14 mm
  • Fruits or seeds
    Number of pappus parts
    • 10
    • 11 or more
    • 9
    Ovary length in developed fruit
    1–3 mm
    Ovary width in developed fruit
    0.8–2 mm
    Seed hair tuft length
    0.6–2 mm
    Seed hairs uniform
    there are two distinct lengths of pappus hairs
    Seed tuft scale number
    0
    Seed tuft type
    • the pappus is made of stiff, tapering bristles
    • the pappus is made of very fine hairs or bristles
    Top of disk flower ovary
    NA
    Tuft or plume on fruit
    there is no plume, or the plume is made up of scales, awns, a crown, or a rim
  • Glands or sap
    Bract resin
    the bracts have resin or resin glands
    Ovary glands
    there are glands on the ovary surface
    Sap
    the sap is clear and watery
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    the plant has one or more free-standing stems
    Horizontal rooting stem
    there are stolons on some plants
    Plant lifespan
    the plant is perennial, it shows evidence of previous year's leaves, stems or stem bases
    Spines on plant
    the plant has no spines
    Underground organs
    the plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Final leaf segment length (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Final leaf segment width (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Hairs on underside of leaf blade
    the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Leaf arrangement
    • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    • basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf has no petiole
    Leaf blade base shape
    the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    Leaf blade edges
    the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes
    Leaf blade hairs
    NA
    Leaf blade length
    20–220 mm
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is linear (very narrow with more or less parallel sides)
    • the leaf blade is oblanceolate (lance-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    2–30 mm
    Leaf disposition
    the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem
    Leaf spines
    there are no spines on the leaf edges
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have no leaf stalks, but attach directly to the stem
    Leaf stalk length
    0 mm
    Leaf tip extension
    NA
    Leaf type
    leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    man-made or disturbed habitats
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Leaves on stem
    there is at least one full leaf above the base of the flowering stem
    Stem internode hair direction
    NA
    Stem internode hair length
    0 mm
    Stem internode hair type
    the stem has no hairs between the nodes
    Stem internode hairs
    the stem has no hairs between the nodes

Wetland Status

Usually occurs in wetlands, but occasionally in non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACW)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

var. asteroides

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

var. latisquama

Massachusetts
not applicable (S-rank: SNA)

var. recognita

Massachusetts
not applicable (S-rank: SNA)

Native to North America?

Yes and no (some introduced)

Family

Asteraceae

Genus

Boltonia

Notes on Subspecies and Varieties in New England

Variety latisquama is known from CT, MA, ME, RI, VT. Variety recognita is known from CT, MA, ME, RI.

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Boltonia asteroides (L. ) Ľ Hér. E

white doll’s-daisy. 1a. Boltonia latisquama Gray; 1b. Boltonia latisquama Gray var. microcephala Fern. & Grisc.; B. latisquama Gray var. occidentalis Gray; B. latisquama Gray 
var. recognita Fern. & Grisc.; B. recognita (Fern. & Grisc.) G.N. Jones • CT, MA, ME, RI, VT. Roadsides, fields, waste areas.

1a.  Outer and middle involucral bracts oblanceolate to rhombic or spatulate, obtuse 
to rounded at the apex, 1–2 mm wide; leaf blades near base of capitulescence mostly 
1–2 mm wide … 1a. B. asteroides var.  latisquama (Gray) Cronq.

1b.  Involucral bracts linear to narrow-oblong, acute at the apex, 0.5–1.3 mm wide; leaf blades near base of capitulescence mostly wider than 4 mm
 … 1b. B. asteroides var. recognita (Fern. & Grisc.) Cronq.

Variety latisquama is known from CT, MA, ME, RI, VT. Variety recognita is known from CT, MA, ME, RI.