Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

hedge false bindweed

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Hedge false bindweed is a large vine that can grow to 10 feet (3 meters), with large rhizomatous root systems and 2 1/2- to 3-inch (6.3 - 7.6 cm) flowers. There are four subspecies in New England. One (Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium) is non-native, while the other three are all native.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), brackish or salt marshes and flats, coastal beaches (sea beaches), marshes, meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, wetland margins (edges of wetlands)

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Flower petal color
  • pink to red
  • white
Leaf type
the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement
alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
Flower symmetry
there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
Number of sepals, petals or tepals
there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
Fusion of sepals and petals
the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube
Stamen number
5
Fruit type (general)
the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
Show All Characteristics
  • Clonal plantlets
    Bulbils
    the plant does not appear to have bulbils
    Bulblets replace flowers
    there are no bulblets where the flowers are located
  • Flowers
    Anther length
    4–6.5 mm
    Anther opening
    the anthers have narrow slits or furrows that run lengthwise along the anthers
    Anther spurs
    the anthers do not have spurs on them
    Calyx symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is radially symmetrical)
    Carpel hairs
    the carpels have no hairs
    Carpels fused
    the carpels are fused to one another
    Cleistogamous flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on the plan
    Corolla palate
    no
    Corona lobe length
    0 mm
    Epicalyx
    the flower does not have an epicalyx
    Epicalyx number of parts
    0
    Flower description
    the flower has a superior ovary, and lacks a hypanthium
    Flower diameter
    50–70 mm
    Flower length
    30–70 mm
    Flower number
    At least 1
    Flower petal color
    • pink to red
    • white
    Flower reproductive parts
    the flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts
    Flower symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
    Flowers sunken into stem
    no
    Form of style
    the style is lobed at the tip, and unbranched
    Fused stamen clusters
    NA
    Fusion of sepals and petals
    the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube
    Horns in hoods (Asclepias)
    NA
    Hypanthium
    the flower does not have a hypanthium
    Hypanthium length
    0 mm
    Inflorescence one-sided
    the flowers are arrayed in a spiral around the inflorescence axis or branches, or occur singly, or in several ranks
    Inner tepals (Rumex)
    NA
    Interior flower disk
    the flower has an interior disc
    Length of peduncle
    50–150 mm
    Marks on petals
    there are no noticeable marks on the petals
    Nectar spur
    the flower has no nectar spurs
    Number of branches in umbel
    0
    Number of carpels
    2
    Number of pistils
    1
    Number of sepals, petals or tepals
    there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
    Number of styles
    1
    Ovary position
    the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Perianth shape
    the perianth is funnelform (funnel-shaped)
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures
    Petal and sepal colors
    • pink to red
    • white
    Petal appearance
    the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown)
    Petal folds or pleats
    the petals of the flower have folds or plaits on them
    Petal hairs (Viola)
    NA
    Petal hairs on inner/upper surface
    there are no hairs on the inner/upper petal surface
    Petal length
    40–70 mm
    Petal length relative to sepals
    the petals are longer than the sepals
    Petal tips (Cuscuta)
    NA
    Raceme attachment (Veronica)
    NA
    Reproductive system
    all the flowers have both carpels and stamens (synoecious)
    Scales inside corolla
    no
    Sepal and petal color
    the sepals are different from the petals
    Sepal appearance
    the sepals are green or brown, and leaf-like in texture
    Sepal appendages
    the sepals do not have appendages on them
    Sepal appendages (Oenothera)
    NA
    Sepal color
    green to brown
    Sepal length
    10–18 mm
    Sepal number
    5
    Sepal orientation
    the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward
    Sepal uniformity
    all the sepals are about the same size
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are fused to each other (not other flower parts), at least near their bases
    Stamen attachment
    the stamens are attached at or near the bases of the petals or tepals
    Stamen length
    15–30 mm
    Stamen lengths differ
    the stamens are all approximately the same length
    Stamen morphology
    the stamens within each cycle are the same
    Stamen number
    5
    Stamen position relative to petals
    the stamens are lined up with the sepals
    Stamen relative length
    anything
    Staminodes
    there are no staminodes on the flower
    Style petal-like
    the styles are not petal-like
    Style relative length
    the stigma does not protrude beyond the mouth of the corolla
    Umbel flower reproductive parts
    NA
    Upper lip of bilabiate corolla
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Achene relative orientation
    NA
    Achene shape
    NA
    Achene surface (Polygonum)
    NA
    Achene type
    NA
    Berry color
    NA
    Capsule color (Viola)
    NA
    Capsule ribs
    the capsule has no prominent ribs or wings
    Capsule splitting
    • the capsule splits by four main valves, teeth or pores
    • the capsule splits by two main valves, teeth or pores
    Carpel beak length
    0 mm
    Fruit (pyxis) dehiscence
    NA
    Fruit cross-section
    the fruit is round in cross-section
    Fruit features (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Fruit locules
    one
    Fruit shape
    the fruit is spherical
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a capsule (splits along two or more seams, apical teeth or pores when dry, to release two or more seeds)
    Hairs on fruit
    the fruits are not hairy
    Legumes (Fabaceae)
    NA
    Mericarp length
    0 mm
    Mericarp segment shape (Desmodium)
    NA
    Other markings on berry
    NA
    Ovary stipe
    the ovary or fruit does not have a stipe
    Placenta arrangement
    the plant has axile placentation, in which the ovules are attached where the septa of a compound ovary are united, usually on the central axis, or to the septa themselves
    Rows of seeds in fruit (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Schizocarpic fruit compression
    NA
    Schizocarpic fruit segments
    0
    Seed number
    4
    Seed surface
    the seed is smooth or without clear markings
    Septum in fruit (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Wings on fruit
    the fruit does not have wings on it
    prickles on fruits
    the fruits do not have thorn-like defensive structures
  • Glands or sap
    Glands on leaf blade
    the leaf blades do not have glandular dots or scales
    Sap
    the sap is milky and opaque, and may be white or colored
    Sap color
    the sap is white
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    the plant is a vine (it cannot support its own weight)
    Lifespan
    the plant lives more than two years
    Parasitism
    the plant is not parasitic
    Plant color
    the leaves or young stems of the plant are green
    Plants darken when dry
    no
    Spines on plant
    the plant has no spines
    Underground organs
    the plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Bracteole length
    10–30 mm
    Bracteole number (Apiaceae)
    0
    Bracteole shape
    the bracteoles are ovate (widest below the middle, and broadly tapering to both ends--egg-shaped)
    Bracteoles
    the plant has bracteoles between the primary bracts and the flowers
    Bracts in plantain (Plantago)
    NA
    Final leaf segment length (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Final leaf segment length to width ratio (compound lvs only)
    0
    Final leaf segment width (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Floral bract texture
    the floral bracts are green, with a leaf-like texture
    Floral bracts
    the flower has one or more bracts associated with it
    Flower bract length
    10–20 mm
    Hairs on leaf stalk
    • the petiole has hairs on it
    • the petiole has no hairs on it
    Hairs on underside of leaf
    • the underside of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy
    • the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or it has very few hairs
    Hairs on upper side of leaf
    • the upper side of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy
    • the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or it has very few hairs
    Hooked hairs on underside of leaf
    no
    Inflated hairs on leaf
    the leaf blade does not have inflated hairs on it
    Leaf arrangement
    alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf has a distinct leaf stalk (petiole)
    Leaf blade base shape
    the base of the leaf blade is sagittate (arrow-shaped, with pointed lobes directed backwards)
    Leaf blade bloom
    the underside of the leaf has no noticeable bloom
    Leaf blade edges
    the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
    Leaf blade flatness
    the leaf is flat (planar) at the edges
    Leaf blade hairs
    the leaf blade has simple hairs with no glands, and not tangled or wooly
    Leaf blade length
    50–100 mm
    Leaf blade primary vein pattern
    the major veins radiate out from one point at the base
    Leaf blade shape
    the leaf blade is cordate (heart-shaped with backward-facing rounded lobes), or sagittate (arrow-shaped with backward-facing pointed lobes)
    Leaf blade surface colors
    the upper side of the leaf blade is relatively uniform in color
    Leaf blade width
    20–60 mm
    Leaf duration
    the leaves drop off in winter (or they whither but persist on the plant)
    Leaf form
    the leaves are green, with an expanded blade and a leaf-like texture
    Leaf spines
    there are no spines on the leaf edges
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have leaf stalks
    Leaf stalk attachment to leaf
    the petiole attaches at the basal margin of the leaf blade
    Leaf stalk base
    the petiole base is narrow where it attaches to the stem
    Leaf stalk length
    15–100 mm
    Leaf teeth and lobes
    the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
    Leaf tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    Leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Leaf types
    • NA
    • There is a gradual change in appearance of the leaves from the base (or near the base) of the plant to those from further up on the stem, with leaves progressively changing as one moves higher on the stem (often becoming shorter, or less toothed/lobed, and/or with shorter petioles).
    Leaf variation
    the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem
    Leaflet number
    0
    Leaflet petiolules
    NA
    Leaves per node
    there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Pinnately compound leaf type
    NA
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Stipels
    NA
    Stipule edges
    NA
    Stipule features
    NA
    Stipule fused to leaf stalk
    NA
    Stipule length
    0 mm
    Stipule shape
    NA
    Stipules
    there are no stipules on the plant
    Teeth per side of leaf blade
    0
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    • New Hampshire
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • brackish or salt marshes and flats
    • edges of wetlands
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • marshes
    • meadows or fields
    • sea beaches
    • shores of rivers or lakes
  • Scent
    Plant odor
    the plant does not have much of a smell
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Branched tendrils
    NA
    Hair between stem nodes
    • the stem has hairs between the nodes
    • the stem has no hairs between the nodes
    Hooked hairs on stem between nodes
    no
    Leaves on stem
    there is at least one full leaf above the base of the flowering stem
    Plant height
    Up to 300 cm
    Stem bloom
    there is no powdery or waxy film on the stem
    Stem orientation
    the stems trail at the base, but may turn upwards at the tips
    Stem roughness between nodes
    the stem does not feel rough
    Stem succulence
    the stems are not succulent
    Tendril origin
    NA
    Tendrils
    the plant does not have tendrils
    Wings on stem
    the stem does not have wings on it

Wetland Status

Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FAC)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Maine
unranked (S-rank: SNR)
Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

ssp. americana

Massachusetts
unrankable (S-rank: SU)
Vermont
unrankable (S-rank: SU)

ssp. angulata

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

ssp. appalachiana

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

Native to North America?

Yes and no (some introduced)

Sometimes Confused With

Calystegia silvatica:
sinus of leaf blade usually rectangular, the leaf tissue not beginning on the interior of the basal lobes for a distance of mostly 2-5 mm from the petiole attachment, bracteoles rounded to obtuse at the apex and saccate at the base, and peduncles frequently paired on some nodes on the plant (vs. C. sepium, with the sinus of the leaf blade usually V-shaped or U-shaped, the leaf tissue beginning on the interior side of the basal lobe mostly 0-2 mm from the petiole attachment, bracteoles long-acute to obtuse at the apex, not or somewhat saccate at the base, and peduncles usually solitary).
Calystegia spithamea:
stems upright, twining only at the tip (if at all) and leaf blades broadly tapering to subcordate at the base, without prominent basal lobes (vs. C. sepium, with stems extensively twining and leaf blades arrow-shaped to halberd-shaped with prominent basal lobes).

Synonyms

  • Convolvulus sepium L.

Genus

Calystegia

Notes on Subspecies and Varieties in New England

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. sepium is known from MA, NH, RI, VT and non-native.C. sepium ssp. americana (Sims) Brummitt id knoen from known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT and is native.C. sepium ssp. angulata Brummitt is known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT and is native.C. sepium ssp. appalachiana Brummitt is known from CT, MA, ME, NH, VT and is native.

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

2.  Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. n

hedge false bindweed.  2a. Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. var. americana (Sims) Matsuda; Convolvulus americanus (Sims) Greene; C. sepium L. var. americanus Sims;  2b. Convolvulus sepium L.;  2c. Calystegia sepium (L. ) R. Br. var. angulata (Brummitt) N. Holmgren; C. sepium (L.) R. Br. var. repens (L.) Gray; Convolvulus repens L.; C. sepium L. var. repens (L.) Gray 
• CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT. Fields, roadsides, fence rows, shorelines, margins of tidal marshes, 
forest clearings, about buildings.

1a.  Plants pubescent on the distal stems, petioles, peduncles, and abaxial blade surface of new leaves [Fig. 587]; sinus of leaf blade commonly V-shaped [Fig. 587]; corolla pink 
 … 2a. C. sepium ssp. americana (Sims) Brummitt

1b.  Plants glabrous or with a few hairs on the distal portion of the petiole (rarely the peduncle bases also pubescent); sinus of leaf blade U-shaped or V-shaped; corolla white to pink

2a.  Sinus of leaf blade commonly V-shaped [Fig. 587]; corolla white or rarely pale pink, usually 30–50 mm long; stamens (15–) 17–23 (–25) mm long … 2b. C. sepium ssp. sepium

2b.  Sinus of leaf blade commonly U-shaped; corolla white or pink, usually 45–64 mm long; stamens (19–) 23–30 (–32) mm long

3a.  Corolla usually white; bracteoles (6–) 10–18 mm wide, usually approximate 
 … 2c. C. sepium ssp. angulata Brummitt

3b.  Corolla usually pink; bracteoles (12–) 14–26 (–28) mm wide, usually overlapping 
 … 2d. C. sepium ssp. appalachiana Brummitt

Subspecies americana is native and known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT. It is most frequent in, but not confined to, coastal counties and along Lake Champlain, VT. It is frequently misinterpreted as the correct name for all of our native subspecies of Calystegia sepium (e.g., Tucker 1995, Sorrie and Somers 1999). Subspecies angulata is native and known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT. Subspecies appalachiana is native and known from CT, MA, ME, NH, VT. Subspecies sepium is non-native and known from MA, NH, RI, VT.