Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey

false hop sedge

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Within New England, false hop sedge it is endangered in Massachusetts and rare in Vermont, but fairly widespread in Connecticut. It is similar in appearance to hop sedge (Carex lupulina), being distinguished mainly by having larger achenes 2.4–3.4 mm wide, and nearly as wide as long, whereas the smaller achenes of hop sedge are longer than wide.

Habitat

Marshes, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
  • Vermont
stem leaf blade width
6–13 mm
Lowest bract sheath
the lowest bract has a sheath longer than four millimeters
Spike on stalk
the lowest spike on the plant has a peduncle
Top spike
the uppermost spike contains only staminate flowers
Perigynium hairs
the perigynium has no hairs
Perigynium length
12–18.5 mm
Leaf sheath color
the leaf sheath has no pink, red or purple tinting
Leaf blade texture
the leaf blade is smooth and hairless, or rough and sandpapery
Perigynium beak teeth
the perigynium beak is divided at the top into two teeth
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Anther length
    3.5–7 mm
    Bumps on fruit
    there are no papillae on the perigynium surface
    Inflorescence length
    60–400 mm
    Length of scale
    the scale is shorter than the perigynium
    Lowest spike length
    20–80 mm
    Lowest spike stalk length
    10–130 mm
    Lowest spike width
    15–30 mm
    Perigynium beak
    the perigynium has a beak
    Perigynium beak length
    6–9 mm
    Perigynium beak orientation
    the beak of the perigynium is straight, and in line with the perigynium
    Perigynium beak serrations
    the perigynium beak has no serrations
    Perigynium beak teeth
    the perigynium beak is divided at the top into two teeth
    Perigynium beak teeth length
    Up to 1 mm
    Perigynium color
    • green
    • tan
    Perigynium cross-section
    the perigynium is relatively round in cross-section
    Perigynium hairs
    the perigynium has no hairs
    Perigynium length
    12–18.5 mm
    Perigynium nerve number
    17–25
    Perigynium nerve texture
    the nerves on the perigynium are raised, even after drying the perigynium
    Perigynium nerves lower side
    8–12
    Perigynium nerves upper side
    8–12
    Perigynium orientation
    • the perigynia are angled outwards
    • the perigynia are oriented vertically or pressed against the axis or adjacent perigynia
    Perigynium puffy
    the perigynium is inflated (there is space between the perigynium and the achene)
    Perigynium shape
    • the perigynium body is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the perigynium body is ovate (egg-shaped)
    Perigynium width
    3.8–6 mm
    Perigynium winged
    the perigynium has no wings
    Pollen- and seed-producing spikes
    some of the spikes produce perigynia
    Pollen-producing spike length
    20–100 mm
    Pollen-producing spike number
    1–2
    Pollen-producing spike peduncle length
    10–120 mm
    Pollen-producing spike width
    2–5 mm
    Scale awn
    • The carpellate scale does not have an awn (it may have a short point)
    • the carpellate scale has an awn on it
    Scale awn texture
    • NA
    • the carpellate scale awn has tiny teeth
    Scale color
    green
    Scale length
    6–13 mm
    Scale tip
    the carpellate scale tip is acute (has a sharp point)
    Spike on stalk
    the lowest spike on the plant has a peduncle
    Spike orientation
    the spikes are oriented vertically or pressed against the axis
    Spikes per stem
    2-15
    Stigma branching
    the stigmas have three branches
    Top spike
    the uppermost spike contains only staminate flowers
  • Fruits or seeds
    Achene dimples
    the achene has no folds or dimples
    Achene length
    3–4.5 mm
    Achene width
    2.2–3.4 mm
    Style persistence
    the style stays on the mature achenes
  • Growth form
    Rhizomes
    there are long rhizomes present
  • Leaves
    Leaf arrangement
    the leaves are all produced from the base of the plant
    Leaf blade cross-section
    The leaf blade is folded lengthwise, with one prominent midvien
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    50–62
    Leaf blade texture
    the leaf blade is smooth and hairless, or rough and sandpapery
    Leaf bumps
    the upper surface of the leaf blade does not have papillae
    Leaf sheath bumps
    there are no papillae at the top edge of the leaf sheath
    Leaf sheath color
    the leaf sheath has no pink, red or purple tinting
    Leaf sheath dots
    there are no dots on the leaf sheathes
    Leaf sheath folds
    there are no corrugations on the leaf sheath
    Leaf sheath texture
    the leaf sheath feels smooth, and has no hairs
    Lowest bract sheath
    the lowest bract has a sheath longer than four millimeters
    Lowest leaf blade width
    6–13 mm
    Lowest leaf sheath texture
    the leaf sheath feels smooth (it may have soft hairs)
    stem leaf blade width
    6–13 mm
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • marshes
    • shores of rivers or lakes
    • swamps
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Plant height
    50–130 cm
    Relative stem height
    • the main stem is equal to or shorter than the leaves
    • the main stem is taller than the leaves
    Spike internode length
    20–170 mm
    Stem cross-section
    the main stem is roughly triangular in cross-section
    Stem spacing
    • the stems grow close together in compact clusters or tufts
    • the stems grow singly or a few together (they may form diffuse colonies)

Wetland Status

Occurs only in wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: OBL)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
fairly widespread (S-rank: S4)
Massachusetts
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)
Vermont
rare (S-rank: S2)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Carex lupulina:
achenes longer than wide, the angles without knob-like points (vs. C. lupuliformis, with achenes nearly as wide as long, each angle with a prominent, knob-like point).

Family

Cyperaceae

Genus

Carex

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

111.  Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey NC

false hop sedge. CT, MA, VT. Swamps, lacustrine forests, stream banks, edges of marshes, 
vernal pools.