Coleataenia longifolia (Torr.) Soreng

long-leaved redtop-panicgrass

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Long-leaved redtop-panicgrass is a native grass confined to sandy or peaty pond shores, marsh edges and flood plains. There are three subspecies in New England, two of which are of conservation concern, while the third is common and widespread in New England.

Habitat

Marshes, meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, wetland margins (edges of wetlands)

Characteristics

Habitat
wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Leaf blade width
2–12 mm
Inflorescence branches
the flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis of the inflorescence
Spikelet length
1.6–3.8 mm
Glume relative length
both glumes are as long or longer than all of the florets
Awn on glume
the glume has no awn
One or more florets
there is one floret per spikelet
Lemma awn length
0 mm
Leaf ligule length
0.3–3 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Anther number
    3
    Awn on glume
    the glume has no awn
    Bristles below spikelets
    no
    Floret lower bract texture
    the lemma is hard and firm
    Floret types within spikelet
    • NA
    • there are at least two distinct forms of florets within one spikelet
    Glume relative length
    both glumes are as long or longer than all of the florets
    Glume shape
    the glume is flat or curved in cross-section
    Inflorescence arrangement
    the spikelets are uniform
    Inflorescence axis orientation
    the inflorescence axis is straight
    Inflorescence branches
    the flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis of the inflorescence
    Inflorescence length
    90–400 mm
    Inflorescence type (general)
    the spikelets are borne on stalks or on branches
    Inflorescence type (specific)
    the inflorescence is branched, and the branches do NOT both grow from the same side of the plant AND look like spikes
    Lemma awn base
    NA
    Lemma awn coiled
    NA
    Lemma awn length
    0 mm
    Lemma awn number
    the lemma has no awn
    Lemma awn orientation
    NA
    Lemma cross-section
    the lemma is flat or rounded if you cut across the midpoint
    Lemma surface
    the surface of the lemma is relatively smooth (not counting any longitudinal veins or hairs)
    Lemma tip
    the lemma tip is a simple point, with or without an awn (long narrow extension ending in a point)
    One or more florets
    there is one floret per spikelet
    Spikelet axis tip
    there is no extension of the spikelet axis beyond the tip of the spikelet
    Spikelet length
    1.6–3.8 mm
    Spikelets spiny
    the spikelets do not appear spiny
    Upper glume shape
    the upper glume is widest at or below the middle
  • Leaves
    Leaf auricles
    the leaves do not have auricles
    Leaf blade cross-section
    • the leaf blade is clearly folded or rolled inwards
    • the leaf blade is more or less flat in cross-section, or slightly folded or rolled inwards
    Leaf blade hairs
    • the leaf blade is hairless, but it may have tiny prickles that give it a sand-papery feel
    • the leaf blade is hairy
    Leaf blade width
    2–12 mm
    Leaf ligule length
    0.3–3 mm
    Leaf ligule type
    • the leaf ligule is in the form of a membrane
    • the leaf ligule is in the form of a membrane with fine hairs
    Leaf sheath closed around stem
    the margins of the leaf sheath are overlapping and not fused together except in the basal half (or less)
    Leaf sheath hairs
    • there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath
    • there are no hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath
  • Place
    Habitat
    wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    • New Hampshire
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • edges of wetlands
    • marshes
    • meadows or fields
    • shores of rivers or lakes
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Stem spacing
    the stems grow close together in compact clusters or tufts

Wetland Status

Usually occurs in wetlands, but occasionally in non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACW)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

ssp. longifolia

Massachusetts
rare (S-rank: S2), threatened (code: T)
New Hampshire
historical (S-rank: SH), endangered (code: E)

ssp. rigidula

Vermont
rare to uncommon (S-rank: S2S3)

sup. elongata

Connecticut
historical (S-rank: SH), special concern, extirpated (code: SC*)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Panicum dichotomiflorum:
spikelets born on pedicels 1-6 mm long, not secund, and apex of upper lemma and palea without papillae (vs. C. longifolia, with spikelets borne on pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm long, secund, and apex of upper lemma and paleo with simple or compound papillae).
Panicum philadelphicum:
spikelets born on pedicels 3-15 mm long, not secund, sheaths terete, and apex of upper lemma and palea without papillae (vs. C. longifolia, with spikelets borne on pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm long, secund, sheaths compressed, and apex of upper lemma and paleo with simple or compound papillae).

Synonyms

  • Panicum longifolium Torr.
  • Sorengia longifolia (Torr.) Zuloaga & Morrone

Family

Poaceae

Genus

Coleataenia

Notes on Subspecies and Varieties in New England

Subspecies longifolia is known from CT, MA, NH, RI. Subspecies elongata is known from CT, RI.

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