Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch

frosted hawthorn

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Frosted hawthorn is absent from the northern portions of the northern New England states except for Vermont's Champlain Valley, where it is present. There are two varieties in New England.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), forest edges, meadows and fields, shrublands or thickets

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Growth form
  • the plant is a shrub (i.e., a woody plant with several stems growing from the base)
  • the plant is a tree
Leaf type
the leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaves per node
there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
  • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
  • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
Leaf duration
the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)
armature on plant
the plant has spines, prickles, or thorns
Leaf blade length
15–79 mm
Leaf stalk
the leaves have leaf stalks
Fruit type (general)
the fruit is fleshy
Bark texture
the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated
Twig winter color
  • brown
  • red
Bud scale number
there are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed
Show All Characteristics
  • Buds or leaf scars
    Bud scale number
    there are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed
    Bud scar shape (Fraxinus)
    NA
    Collateral buds
    there are no collateral buds on the sides of the branches
    Leaf scar arrangement
    there is one leaf scar per node on the stem or twig
    Superposed buds
    there are no superposed buds on the branch
  • Flowers
    Anther color
    • the anthers show no hint of a pink, reddish or purplish tint
    • there is a noticeable pink, reddish or purplish tint to the anthers
    Carpels fused
    the carpels are fused to one another
    Enlarged sterile flowers
    there are no enlarged sterile flowers on the plant
    Flower petal color
    white
    Flower symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
    Hairs on ovary (Amelanchier)
    NA
    Hypanthium present
    the flower has a hypanthium
    Inflorescence hairs
    there are no hairs on the inflorescence
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a corymb (with long lower branches and shorter upper branches, giving it a more or less flat-topped look)
    Number of pistils
    1
    Ovary position
    • the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    • the ovary is below the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures
    Petal appearance
    the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown)
    Petal fusion
    the perianth parts are separate
    Sepal cilia (Ilex)
    NA
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are fused to each other (not other flower parts), at least near their bases
    Stamen number
    • 12
    • 13 or more
    Stamens fused
    the stamens are not fused to one another
  • Fruits or seeds
    Berry color
    • green
    • purple
    Fruit tissue origin
    the hypanthium of the flower becomes part of the fruit
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is fleshy
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a berry (fleshy, with the wall enclosing one or more sections, with two or more seeds)
    Nut with spines (Fagaceae)
    NA
    Wings on fruit
    there are no wings on the fruit
  • Glands or sap
    Sap color
    the sap is clear and watery
    Stalked glands on fruit (Rosa)
    NA
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    • the plant is a shrub (i.e., a woody plant with several stems growing from the base)
    • the plant is a tree
  • Leaves
    Hairs on underside of leaf blade
    the underside of the leaf has no hairs
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs
    Leaf blade base shape
    • the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    • the base of the leaf blade is rounded
    Leaf blade base symmetry
    the leaf blade base is symmetrical
    Leaf blade edges
    • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
    • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
    Leaf blade edges (Acer)
    NA
    Leaf blade flatness
    the leaf is flat (planar) at the edges
    Leaf blade hairs
    the hairs on the leaf blade are different from the choices given
    Leaf blade length
    15–79 mm
    Leaf blade scales
    there are no scales on the leaf blades
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade texture
    • the leaf blade is coriaceous (has a firm, leathery texture)
    • the leaf blade is herbaceous (has a leafy texture)
    Leaf blade translucent dots
    there are no translucent dots on the leaf blade
    Leaf blade vein pattern
    the main veins of the leaf blade are pinnate (the secondary veins branch off at intervals from the main central vein) and non-arcuate (not arched towards the leaf tip)
    Leaf blade veins
    the leaf blade has one main vein running from the base toward the tip
    Leaf duration
    the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)
    Leaf form
    the plant is broad-leaved (with broadly flattened leaf blades)
    Leaf lobe tips (Quercus)
    NA
    Leaf midrib glands
    the midrib of the leaf blade lacks glands on the upper surface
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have leaf stalks
    Leaf stalk attachment to leaf
    the petiole attaches at the basal margin of the leaf blade
    Leaf stalk nectaries
    • the leaf stalk has nectaries on it
    • there are no nectaries on the leaf stalk
    Leaf stalk shape
    the leaf stalk is not flattened
    Leaf teeth
    the leaf blade margin is serrate (with forward-pointing) or dentate (with outward-pointing) with medium-sized to coarse teeth
    Leaf teeth hairs (Carya)
    NA
    Leaf type
    the leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Leaves per node
    there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
    Stipules
    the plant has stipules
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    • New Hampshire
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • edges of forests
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • meadows or fields
    • shrublands or thickets
  • Scent
    Plant odor
    the plant does not have much of an odor, or it has an unpleasant or repellant odor
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Aerial roots
    the plant has no aerial roots
    Bark texture
    the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated
    Branch brittleness (willows only)
    NA
    Branch cross-section
    the branch is circular in cross-section, or it has five or more sides, so that there are no sharp angles
    First-year cane (Rubus)
    NA
    Pith shape
    the outline of the pith in a twig is roughly round
    Twig bloom
    there is no bloom on the twig
    Twig papillae (Vaccinium species only)
    NA
    Twig scales
    there are no scales on the twig surface
    Twig winter color
    • brown
    • red
    Wings on branch
    the branch does not have wings on it
    armature on plant
    the plant has spines, prickles, or thorns

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

var. pruinosa

New Hampshire
unrankable (S-rank: SU), Ind (code: Ind)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Crataegus macrosperma:
flowers with 5-10 stamens and upper surface of leaf blade with minute hairs for much of growing season (vs. C. pruinosa, with flowers with 12-20 stamens and upper surface of leaf blade without minute hairs for most of growing season).
Crataegus dissona:
flowers with 5-10 stamens and persistent sepals on pome nearly sessile or slightly elevated on a collar 0.3-0.8 mm tall (vs. C. pruinosa, with flowers with 12-20 stamens and persistent sepals on pome elevated on a conspicuous collar 0.5-1.7 mm tall).

Synonyms

  • Crataegus festiva Sarg.
  • Crataegus littoralis Sarg.
  • Crataegus parvula Sarg.
  • Crataegus pequatorum Sarg.
  • Crataegus philadelphica Sarg.
  • Crataegus pruinosa var. latisepala (Ashe) Egglest.
  • Crataegus pruinosa var. leiophylla (Sarg.) J.B. Phipps
  • Crataegus pruinosa var. parvula (Sarg.) J.B. Phipps
  • Crataegus pruinosa var. philadelphica (Ashe) Egglest.
  • Mespilus pruinosa Wendl. f.

Family

Rosaceae

Genus

Crataegus

Notes on Subspecies and Varieties in New England

Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Kochvar. pruinosa is known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT.C. pruinosa var. porteri (Britt.) Egglest. is known from CT, MA.

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

39.  Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f. ) K. Koch NC

frosted hawthorn.  39a. Crataegus caerulescens Sarg.; C. cognata Sarg.; C. conjuncta 
 Sarg.; C. leiophylla Sarg.; C. porteri Britt.; C. porteri Britt. var. caerulescens (Sarg.) Palmer;  
39b. Crataegus festiva Sarg.; C. littoralis Sarg.; C. parvula Sarg.; C. pequatorum Sarg.; 
 C. philadelphica Sarg.; C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch var. latisepala (Ashe) Egglest.; 
 C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch var. leiophylla (Sarg.) J.B. Phipps; C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) 
K. Koch var. parvula (Sarg.) J.B. Phipps; C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch var. philadelphica 
 (Ashe) Egglest.; Mespilus pruinosa Wendl. f. • CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT; generally restricted to the southern portion of the northern New England states, but extending north in the Lake Champlain Valley of VT. Forest edges, successional fields, roadsides, early successional forests, forest clearings. Though this species has been subdivided into numerous varieties (Palmer 1952, Phipps and Muniyamma 1980, etc.), only two groups can be confidently recognized on the New England landscape.

1a.  Anthers non-anthocyanic; pomes globose to obovoid to obpyriform, rounded to truncate or tapering to the base; flowers 17–19 mm wide … 39a. C. pruinosa var. porteri (Britt.) Egglest.

1b.  Anthers anthocyanic; pomes globose to obloid, rounded to truncate at the base; flowers 18–22 mm wide … 39b. C. pruinosa var. pruinosa

Variety porteri is known from CT, MA and is of conservation concern. Variety pruinosa is known from CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT.