Crataegus scabrida Sarg.

scabrous hawthorn

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Crataegus scabrida is a very rare species of hawthorn in New England. It is known only from the northwestern portion of the region.

Habitat

Forest edges, forests, meadows and fields

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
Growth form
  • the plant is a shrub (i.e., a woody plant with several stems growing from the base)
  • the plant is a tree
Leaf type
the leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaves per node
there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
  • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
  • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
Leaf duration
the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)
armature on plant
the plant has spines, prickles, or thorns
Leaf blade length
50–70 mm
Leaf stalk
the leaves have leaf stalks
Fruit type (general)
the fruit is fleshy
Bark texture
the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated
Twig winter color
  • brown
  • red
Bud scale number
there are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed
Show All Characteristics
  • Buds or leaf scars
    Bud scale number
    there are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed
    Bud scar shape (Fraxinus)
    NA
    Collateral buds
    there are no collateral buds on the sides of the branches
    Superposed buds
    there are no superposed buds on the branch
  • Flowers
    Anther color
    there is a noticeable pink, reddish or purplish tint to the anthers
    Carpels fused
    the carpels are fused to one another
    Enlarged sterile flowers
    there are no enlarged sterile flowers on the plant
    Flower petal color
    white
    Flower symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
    Hairs on ovary (Amelanchier)
    NA
    Hypanthium present
    the flower has a hypanthium
    Inflorescence hairs
    there are no hairs on the inflorescence
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a corymb (with long lower branches and shorter upper branches, giving it a more or less flat-topped look)
    Number of pistils
    1
    Ovary position
    • the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    • the ovary is below the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures
    Petal appearance
    the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown)
    Petal fusion
    the perianth parts are separate
    Sepal cilia (Ilex)
    NA
    Sepal tip glands
    there are glands at the tips of the sepal lobes
    Stamen number
    • 10
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    Stamens fused
    the stamens are not fused to one another
  • Fruits or seeds
    Berry color
    red
    Fruit tissue origin
    the hypanthium of the flower becomes part of the fruit
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is fleshy
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a berry (fleshy, with the wall enclosing one or more sections, with two or more seeds)
    Nut with spines (Fagaceae)
    NA
    Wings on fruit
    there are no wings on the fruit
  • Glands or sap
    Sap color
    the sap is clear and watery
    Stalked glands on fruit (Rosa)
    NA
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    • the plant is a shrub (i.e., a woody plant with several stems growing from the base)
    • the plant is a tree
  • Leaves
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy
    Leaf blade base shape
    the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    Leaf blade edges
    • the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
    • the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
    Leaf blade edges (Acer)
    NA
    Leaf blade flatness
    the leaf is flat (planar) at the edges
    Leaf blade hairs
    the hairs on the leaf blade are different from the choices given
    Leaf blade length
    50–70 mm
    Leaf blade scales
    there are no scales on the leaf blades
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends)
    • the leaf blade is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
    Leaf blade texture
    • the leaf blade is coriaceous (has a firm, leathery texture)
    • the leaf blade is herbaceous (has a leafy texture)
    Leaf blade translucent dots
    there are no translucent dots on the leaf blade
    Leaf duration
    the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)
    Leaf form
    the plant is broad-leaved (with broadly flattened leaf blades)
    Leaf lobe tips (Quercus)
    NA
    Leaf midrib glands
    the midrib of the leaf blade lacks glands on the upper surface
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have leaf stalks
    Leaf stalk nectaries
    • the leaf stalk has nectaries on it
    • there are no nectaries on the leaf stalk
    Leaf teeth
    the leaf blade margin is serrate (with forward-pointing) or dentate (with outward-pointing) with medium-sized to coarse teeth
    Leaf teeth hairs (Carya)
    NA
    Leaf type
    the leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Leaves per node
    there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
    Stipules
    the plant has stipules
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • New Hampshire
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • edges of forests
    • forests
    • meadows or fields
  • Scent
    Plant odor
    the plant does not have much of an odor, or it has an unpleasant or repellant odor
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Aerial roots
    the plant has no aerial roots
    Bark texture
    the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated
    Branch brittleness (willows only)
    NA
    Branch cross-section
    the branch is circular in cross-section, or it has five or more sides, so that there are no sharp angles
    First-year cane (Rubus)
    NA
    Pith shape
    the outline of the pith in a twig is roughly round
    Twig papillae (Vaccinium species only)
    NA
    Twig winter color
    • brown
    • red
    Wings on branch
    the branch does not have wings on it
    armature on plant
    the plant has spines, prickles, or thorns

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
absent
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)
New Hampshire
unrankable (S-rank: SU), Ind (code: Ind)
Vermont
unrankable (S-rank: SU)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Crataegus punctata:
leaf blades on short shoots with convex to straight taper to the apex and flowers with 12-20 stamens (vs. C. scabrida, with leaf blades on short shoots with straight to concave taper and flowers with 5-10 stamens).
Crataegus egglestonii:
most leaf blades on short shoots ovate to rhombic-ovate or broad-ovate and inflorescence sparsely pubescent (vs. C. scabrida, with most leaf blades on short shoots elliptic to elliptic-obovate or obovate and inflorescence usually glabrous or rarely with a few hairs).

Synonyms

  • Crataegus affinis Sarg.
  • Crataegus brainerdii Sarg. var. scabrida (Sarg.) Egglest.
  • Crataegus glabrata Sarg.
  • Crataegus picta Sarg.

Family

Rosaceae

Genus

Crataegus

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

41.  Crataegus scabrida Sarg. NC

scabrous hawthorn. Crataegus affinis Sarg.; C. brainerdii Sarg. var. scabrida (Sarg.) Egglest.; 
 C. glabrata Sarg.; C. picta Sarg. • NH, VT. Forest edges, successional fields, early successional forests. Crataegus scabrida has been considered to be a complex of taxa derived from hybridization with one parent in common— C. macracantha—due to the shallow and irregular erosions on the pyrene inner surfaces. Four varieties have traditionally been recognized in New England and, in the absence of additional taxa, are quite recognizable—var. asperifolia, var. cyclophylla, var. egglestonii, and var. scabrida. However, there are numerous problems with this approach. First, there are additional named taxa to contend with that blur the distinctions between the aforementioned varietes, including Crataegus thayeri Sarg. and C. websteri Sarg. These two taxa, which have their type locations within New England, have character states (particularly leaf blade shape) that are transitional between the named varities below and suggest that some elements of the C. scabrida complex may be best treated as a complex assesmblage of hybrid derived taxa (i.e., treated without formally recognized varieties). Second, C. scabrida s.s. is quite different from the remaining taxa and probably should be treated separately from them (its leaf blade outline suggests a different parentage). Third, it has been assumed that the erosions on the pyrenes of C. cyclophylla and C. asperifolia were genetically inherited and imply a close relationship to the remaining taxa of this complex. However, their erosions appear to be caused by insect damage, suggesting that taxonomic changes are necessary.