Crocus vernus (L.) Hill

Dutch crocus

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Dutch crocus is native to eastern Europe and western Russia, and is one of the hardiest crocuses, very widely cultivated and available in a wide range of colors and forms. It rarely escapes cultivation in North America, and in New England has been collected only in Connecticut and Massachusetts.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
Leaf arrangement
basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Leaf blade shape
the leaf blade is linear (very narrow with more or less parallel sides)
Flower petal color
  • blue to purple
  • white
Flower petal length
40–205 mm
Petal fusion
the perianth parts are fused to form a tube, cup, or bell shape
Inflorescence type
  • the inflorescence differs from the choices given
  • the inflorescence has only one flower on it
Ovary position
the ovary is below the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
Fruit type (specific)
the fruit is a capsule (splits along two or more seams, apical teeth or pores when dry, to release two or more seeds)
Fruit length
15–20 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Clonal plantlets
    Axillary bulblets
    there are no bulblets being produced in axils
  • Flowers
    Anther attachment
    the anther is attached by its base to the filament
    Anther color
    the anthers show no hint of a pink, reddish or purplish tint
    Bulblets replace flowers
    there are no bulblets where the flowers are located
    Carpels fused
    the carpels are fused (the number of carpels equals the number of locules)
    Flower bracts
    there are bracts associated with the flower
    Flower number
    1–2
    Flower orientation
    the flowers point upward or spread or curve outward
    Flower petal color
    • blue to purple
    • white
    Flower petal length
    40–205 mm
    Flower shape
    the flower has a funnel-shaped corolla tube
    Flower symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
    Flowering stem width
    0 mm
    Form of style
    the style is branched above the base
    Fringed petal edges
    the petals are not fringed
    Hairs on flower stalk
    NA
    Inflorescence hair glands
    the axis of the inflorescence has no hairs on it
    Inflorescence length
    40–250 mm
    Inflorescence type
    • the inflorescence differs from the choices given
    • the inflorescence has only one flower on it
    Length of flower stalk
    0 mm
    Length of peduncle
    0 mm
    Marks on petals
    • the petals have spots or streaks on them
    • there are no noticeable marks on the petals
    Nectar spur
    the flower has no nectar spurs
    Number of carpels
    3
    Number of pistils
    1
    Number of sepals and/or petals
    there are six petals, sepals or tepals in the flower
    Number of styles
    1
    Ovary position
    the ovary is below the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures
    Petal appearance
    the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown)
    Petal base
    the petal narrows gradually or does not narrow at the base
    Petal fusion
    the perianth parts are fused to form a tube, cup, or bell shape
    Petal hairs on inner/upper surface
    • there are hairs on the inner/upper petal surface
    • there are no hairs on the inner/upper petal surface
    Sepal appearance
    the sepals resemble petals in color and texture
    Sepal length
    40–205 mm
    Sepal orientation
    the sepals are pressed against the plant, or jutting stiffly upward
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are fused to each other (often along with the petals in monocots), at least near their bases
    Spathe
    the plant does not have a spathe
    Spathe form
    NA
    Spathe length
    0 mm
    Stamen number
    3
    Stamen position relative to petals
    the stamens are lined up with the sepals
    Stamens fused
    the stamens are not fused to one another
    Stamens fused outwards
    the stamens are not fused to the petals or tepals
    Style petal-like
    the style is not broad and flattened like a petal
    Tepals
    the petals and sepals are similar in size and color
  • Fruits or seeds
    Berry color
    NA
    Fruit beak length
    0 mm
    Fruit compartments
    there are three locules in the fruit
    Fruit length
    15–20 mm
    Fruit stalk orientation
    NA
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a capsule (splits along two or more seams, apical teeth or pores when dry, to release two or more seeds)
    Other markings on berry
    NA
  • Glands or sap
    Sap
    the sap is clear and watery
  • Growth form
    Lifespan
    the plant lives more than two years
    Underground organs
    the plant has one or more swollen storage organs underground, such as bulbs, tubers or corms
  • Leaves
    Leaf arrangement
    basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
    Leaf blade basal lobes
    the leaf blades do not have basal lobes
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf blade clasps the stem at the base, or the leaf blade goes all the way around the stem, so that the stem appears to pierce the leaf blade
    Leaf blade base shape
    the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    Leaf blade cross-section
    • the leaf blade is U- or V-shaped
    • the leaf blade is more or less flat in cross-section
    Leaf blade faces
    both surfaces of the leaf blade are exposed
    Leaf blade form
    Fully-formed (i.e., expanded), +/- green leaf blades are found somewhere on the plant
    Leaf blade orientation
    the edge of the leaf blade faces the stem of the plant
    Leaf blade shape
    the leaf blade is linear (very narrow with more or less parallel sides)
    Leaf blade surface colors
    the upper side of the leaf blade has obvious spots, mottles or stripes
    Leaf blade tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    Leaf blade veins
    the lateral veins are parallel or slightly arched in the direction of the tip
    Leaf blade width
    2–8 mm
    Leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
    Leaflet number
    0
    Stipule twining
    NA
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    Specific habitat
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • meadows or fields
  • Scent
    Plant odor
    the leaves have no particular smell
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Flowering stem growth form
    NA
    Flowering stem interior
    NA
    Flowering stem leaves
    NA
    Stem hairs
    NA

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
absent

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

Native to North America?

No

Sometimes Confused With

Chionodoxa luciliae:
flowers borne in a raceme, ovary superior, and leaves without a white midstripe (vs. C. vernus, with flowers borne singly at ground level, ovary inferior, and leaves with a white midstripe).
Colchicum autumnale:
leaf blades lacking a white mid-stripe and flowers with 6 stamens and a superior ovary (vs. C. vernus, with the leaf blades with a prominent white mid-stripe, and flowers with 3 stamens and an inferior ovary).

Family

Iridaceae

Genus

Crocus

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Crocus vernus (L.) Hill ssp. vernus E

Dutch crocus. CT, MA. Edges of lawns, fields, roadsides, compost heaps.