Dichanthelium ovale (Ell.) Gould & C.A. Clark

stiff-leaved rosette-panicgrass

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

In New England, stiff-leaved rosette-panicgrass is a rare native grass of sandy soils and coastal plain pond shores of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. There are two subspecies, both of which are of conservation concern.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), shores of rivers or lakes, woodlands

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
Leaf blade width
2–10 mm
Inflorescence branches
the flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis of the inflorescence
Spikelet length
2.1–2.6 mm
Glume relative length
  • both glumes are as long or longer than all of the florets
  • neither glume is quite as long as all of the florets
Awn on glume
the glume has no awn
One or more florets
  • there is more than one floret per spikelet
  • there is one floret per spikelet
Lemma awn length
0 mm
Leaf sheath hair type
  • there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath, and some of the hairs have blisters at their bases
  • there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath, but the hairs do not have blisters at their bases
Leaf ligule length
1–5 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Anther number
    0–3
    Awn on glume
    the glume has no awn
    Bristles below spikelets
    no
    Floret lower bract texture
    the lemma is hard and firm
    Floret number
    1–2
    Floret types within spikelet
    • NA
    • there are at least two distinct forms of florets within one spikelet
    Glume relative length
    • both glumes are as long or longer than all of the florets
    • neither glume is quite as long as all of the florets
    Glume shape
    the glume is flat or curved in cross-section
    Glume veins
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
    • 7 or more
    Inflorescence arrangement
    the spikelets are uniform
    Inflorescence axis orientation
    the inflorescence axis is straight
    Inflorescence branches
    the flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis of the inflorescence
    Inflorescence length
    30–100 mm
    Inflorescence type (general)
    the spikelets are borne on stalks or on branches
    Inflorescence type (specific)
    the inflorescence is branched, and the branches do NOT both grow from the same side of the plant AND look like spikes
    Lemma awn base
    NA
    Lemma awn coiled
    NA
    Lemma awn length
    0 mm
    Lemma awn number
    the lemma has no awn
    Lemma awn orientation
    NA
    Lemma cross-section
    the lemma is flat or rounded if you cut across the midpoint
    Lemma surface
    the surface of the lemma is relatively smooth (not counting any longitudinal veins or hairs)
    Lemma tip
    the lemma tip is a simple point, with or without an awn (long narrow extension ending in a point)
    Lemma vein number
    • 3
    • 5
    • 7 or more
    One or more florets
    • there is more than one floret per spikelet
    • there is one floret per spikelet
    Palea relative length
    palea is one half to fully as long as lemma
    Spikelet axis tip
    there is no extension of the spikelet axis beyond the tip of the spikelet
    Spikelet length
    2.1–2.6 mm
    Spikelets spiny
    the spikelets do not appear spiny
    Upper glume shape
    the upper glume is widest at or below the middle
  • Growth form
    Lifespan
    the plant lives more than two years
    Roots
    the plant has a root mass with a hardened top
  • Leaves
    Basal leaves
    the plant has large or prominent tufts of leaves at the base of the flowering stem
    Leaf auricles
    the leaves do not have auricles
    Leaf blade width
    2–10 mm
    Leaf ligule length
    1–5 mm
    Leaf ligule type
    the leaf ligule is in the form of fine hairs
    Leaf sheath closed around stem
    the margins of the leaf sheath are overlapping and not fused together except in the basal half (or less)
    Leaf sheath hair type
    • there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath, and some of the hairs have blisters at their bases
    • there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath, but the hairs do not have blisters at their bases
    Leaf sheath hairs
    there are hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    • Rhode Island
    Specific habitat
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • shores of rivers or lakes
    • woodlands
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Stem hairs
    the stem has hairs on it
    Stem spacing
    the stems grow close together in compact clusters or tufts

Wetland Status

Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACU)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
absent

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
unrankable (S-rank: SU)
Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

ssp. pseudopubescens

Connecticut
historical (S-rank: SH), special concern, extirpated (code: SC*)
Massachusetts
uncommon (S-rank: S3), special concern (code: SC)

ssp. villosissimum

Massachusetts
historical (S-rank: SH), #NAME? (code: #NAME?)

var. addisonii

Connecticut
historical (S-rank: SH), special concern (code: SC)

var. villosissimum

Rhode Island
historical (S-rank: SH), state historical (code: SH)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Dicanthelium acuminatum:
spikelets 1.3–2.1 mm long, and sheaths glabrous or with hairs usually shorter than 2 mm (vs. D. ovale, with spikelets 2.1–2.6 mm long, and sheaths pubescent with hairs 2–4 mm long).

Family

Poaceae

Notes on Subspecies and Varieties in New England

Subspecies pseudopubescens is known from CT, MA. Subspecies villosissimum is known from CT, MA, RI. Both subspecies are of regional conservation concern.

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

11.  Dichanthelium ovale (Ell.) Gould & C.A. Clark NC

stiff-leaved rosette-panicgrass.  11a. Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann; Panicum addisonii Nash; P. commonsianum Ashe; P. ovale Ell. var. addisonii (Nash) 
C.F. Reed; P. ovale Ell. var. pseudopubescens (Nash) Lelong;  11b. Panicum acuminatum Sw. var. villosissimum (Nash) C.F. Reed; P. atlanticum Nash; P. lanuginosum (Ell.) Gould var. villosissimum (Nash) Gould; P. villosissimum Nash • CT, MA, RI. Sandy soils of woodlands, coastal plain pond shores, and disturbed openings.

1a.  Lower stem internodes and leaf sheaths pubescent with ascending to erect, non-pustulose-based hairs; principal leaf blades 2–6 mm wide 
 … 11a. D. ovale ssp. pseudopubescens  (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

1b.  Lower stem internodes and leaf sheaths pubescent with spreading to retrorse, pustulose-based hairs; principal leaf blades 6–10 mm wide 
 … 11b. D. ovale ssp. villosissimum  (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

Subspecies pseudopubescens is known from CT, MA. Subspecies villosissimum is known from CT, MA, RI. Both subspecies are of regional conservation concern.