Epipactis atrorubens (O. Hoffman) Bess.

dark red helleborine

Copyright: various copyright holders. To reuse an image, please click it to see who you will need to contact.

New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

Found this plant? Take a photo and post a sighting.

North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

enlarge

Facts About

Dark red helleborine is a non-native, Eurasian orchid whose presence in New England is unconfirmed. It was collected in an abandoned Vermont asbestos quarry, but a similar, and much more common non-native species, broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine) is currently present, not the dark red helleborine.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), forests, ridges or ledges

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
Vermont
Leaf arrangement
alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
Number of leaves on stem
  • five
  • six or more
Form of lower petal
the labellum has a pouch-like shape
Lower petal outline
the labellum is lobed but not fringed
Main color of lower petal
  • blue to purple
  • green to brown
  • pink to red
  • white
Nectar spur
there are no nectar spurs on the flower
Inflorescence type
the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
Lower petal characteristics
  • the labellum is in the shape of a pouch
  • the labellum is lobed
Lower petal length
5.5–6.5 mm
Sepal length
6–7 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Flower bract length
    10–35 mm
    Flower petal color
    • green
    • pink
    • purple
    • red
    Flower symmetry
    there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)
    Flowering date
    August
    Flowers per inflorescence
    8–18
    Form of lower petal
    the labellum has a pouch-like shape
    Hairs on inflorescence axis
    the main stem of the inflorescence has hairs entirely without glands
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
    Labellum position
    the labellum is in the lower position on the flower
    Length of narrowed base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lobes at base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lower petal characteristics
    • the labellum is in the shape of a pouch
    • the labellum is lobed
    Lower petal length
    5.5–6.5 mm
    Lower petal outline
    the labellum is lobed but not fringed
    Lower petal strongly red-veined
    no
    Main color of lower petal
    • blue to purple
    • green to brown
    • pink to red
    • white
    Nectar spur
    there are no nectar spurs on the flower
    Nectar spur length
    0 mm
    Number of stamens
    1
    Orientation of side petals
    • the lateral petals are angled steeply upwards
    • the lateral petals slant outward
    • the lateral petals slant somewhat downward
    Self-pollinating flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on this plant
    Sepal length
    6–7 mm
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Spots on lower petal
    yes
    Spur opening membrane
    NA
    Spur opening shape
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Fruit length
    7–9 mm
    Seed capsule orientation
    • the capsule bends downwards or hangs downwards
    • the capsule points upwards or is angled outwards
  • Growth form
    Plant green or not
    the plant is chlorophyllous (it has green parts)
    Roots
    the rhizomes do not resemble coral
    Underground organs
    • there are only slender roots on the plant
    • this plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Bract relative length
    • the bract is longer than the associated flower
    • the bract is shorter than the associated flower
    Features of leaves
    • the leaf does not have any of the mentioned special features
    • the leaf is pleated or folded back and forth along its length
    Leaf arrangement
    alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Leaf blade edges
    the edges of the leaf blade have no teeth
    Leaf blade length
    40–100 mm
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    2.1–2.7
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is orbicular (roughly circular, as wide as long)
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    15–45 mm
    Leaves during flowering
    there are leaves on the plant when it is flowering
    Number of bracts on stem
    0
    Number of leaves on stem
    • five
    • six or more
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • forests
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • ridges or ledges

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
absent
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

None

Native to North America?

No

Sometimes Confused With

Epipactis helleborine:
labellum 9-12 mm long, ovary glabrous or sparsely pubescent, and sepals pale green, pink, purple, or yellow (vs. E. atrorubens, with labellum 5.5-6.5 mm long, ovary tomentose, and sepals dark red to red-purple).

Synonyms

  • Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz ssp. atrorubens (O. Hoffman ex Bernh.) Syme
  • Serapias atrorubens O. Hoffmann

Family

Orchidaceae

Genus

Epipactis

Need Help?

Get Help

Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Epipactis atrorubens (O. Hoffman) Bess. E

dark red helleborine. Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz ssp. atrorubens (O. Hoffman ex Bernh.) Syme; Serapias atrorubens O. Hoffmann • VT. Early successional forest on serpentine bedrock in an abandoned asbestos quarry. Searches of the supposed location for Epipactis atrorubens have found only plants of E. helleborine with sparsely pubescent ovaries and some dark red pigment spots on the flowers. The occurrence of E. atrorubens in New England requires confirmation.