Goodyera tesselata Lodd.

checkered rattlesnake-plantain

New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

Where native and non-native distributions co-occur in a county, only the native distribution is shown.

North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Checkered rattlesnake-plantain is thought to have evolved from a cross between dwarf rattlesnake-plantain (Goodyera repens) and giant rattlesnake-plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia). Specimens may be intermediate between these two taxa, or they may closely resemble dwarf rattlesnake-plantain with white-reticulate veining on the leaves. Interestingly, it may be impossible to distinguish this species from first-generation hybrids of the parent taxa, without chromosome analysis.

Habitat

Forests

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Leaf arrangement
the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant (basal)
Number of leaves on stem
absent
Form of lower petal
the labellum has a pouch-like shape
Lower petal outline
the labellum is simple in form
Main color of lower petal
  • green to brown
  • yellow
Nectar spur
there are no nectar spurs on the flower
Inflorescence type
the inflorescence is a spike (a long unbranched stem with flowers along it that lack stalks)
Lower petal characteristics
the labellum is in the shape of a pouch
Lower petal length
3–5.5 mm
Sepal length
3.8–6 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Flower petal color
    white
    Flower symmetry
    there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)
    Flowering date
    • August
    • July
    • September
    Flowers per inflorescence
    5–72
    Form of lower petal
    the labellum has a pouch-like shape
    Hairs on flower stalk
    the flower stalk has at least some hairs with glands at their bases or tips
    Hairs on inflorescence axis
    at least some of the hairs on the main stem of the inflorescence have glands
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a spike (a long unbranched stem with flowers along it that lack stalks)
    Labellum position
    the labellum is in the lower position on the flower
    Length of flower stalk
    0 mm
    Length of narrowed base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Length of peduncle
    60–230 mm
    Lobes at base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lower petal characteristics
    the labellum is in the shape of a pouch
    Lower petal length
    3–5.5 mm
    Lower petal outline
    the labellum is simple in form
    Lower petal strongly red-veined
    no
    Main color of lower petal
    • green to brown
    • yellow
    Nectar spur
    there are no nectar spurs on the flower
    Nectar spur length
    0 mm
    Number of stamens
    1
    Orientation of side petals
    the lateral petals are angled steeply upwards
    Pollen sacs
    the pollinia remain intact and do not fragment into smaller parts
    Self-pollinating flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on this plant
    Sepal length
    3.8–6 mm
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Shape of viscidium
    the viscidium is another shape than the choices given
    Spots on lower petal
    no
    Spur opening membrane
    NA
    Spur opening shape
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Seed capsule orientation
    the capsule points upwards or is angled outwards
  • Growth form
    Plant green or not
    the plant is chlorophyllous (it has green parts)
    Roots
    the rhizomes do not resemble coral
    Underground organs
    • there are only slender roots on the plant
    • this plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Bract relative length
    • the bract is longer than the associated flower
    • the bract is shorter than the associated flower
    Features of leaves
    the leaf is roughly checkered with green and white markings
    Leaf arrangement
    the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant (basal)
    Leaf blade edges
    the edges of the leaf blade have no teeth
    Leaf blade length
    14–55 mm
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    1.6–2.1
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    9–26 mm
    Leaves during flowering
    there are leaves on the plant when it is flowering
    Number of bracts on stem
    3–5
    Number of leaves on stem
    absent
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Maine
    • Massachusetts
    • New Hampshire
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    forests

Wetland Status

Occurs most often in non-wetlands, but rarely in wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACU-)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
present
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
unrankable (S-rank: SU)
Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)
Rhode Island
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), concern (code: C)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Goodyera repens:
flowers usually arranged in a one-sided array, leaf blades with usually 5 nerves, and sac-like portion of lower petal (the labellum) as deep as wide (vs. G. tesselata, with flowers spirally arranged, leaf blades with 5-9 nerves, and sac-like portion of lower petal (the labellum) longer than deep). Goodyera pubescens: inflorescence dense, without a discernable spiral and flowering stem with 4-14 scale-like bracts (vs. G. tesselata, with inflorescence somewhat open, with a discernable spiral of flowers and flowering stem with 2-7 scale-like bracts).

Synonyms

  • Peramium tesselatum (Lodd.) Heller

Family

Orchidaceae

Genus

Goodyera

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

4.  Goodyera tesselata Lodd. N

checkered rattlesnake-plantain. Peramium tesselatum (Lodd.) Heller • CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT. Mesic to dry-mesic, evergreen and mixed evergreen-deciduous forests. Goodyera tesselata 
 is thought to be an allotetraploid between G. oblongifolia and a form of G. repens with 
white-reticulate leaves (Kallunki 1976). The description includes both triploid first-generation hybrids and stabilized tetraploid individuals. Some individuals of Goodyera tesselata 
 approach G. repens in morphology and are very difficult to distinguish with confidence.