Hieracium gronovii L.

beaked hawkweed

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Beaked hawkweed is a native perennial with rough, hairy leaves and a tall, narrow array (capitulescence) of compound flowers. It may be confused with the more common rough hawkweed (Hieracium scabrum) except that the compound flower head (capitulum) is composed of 20-40 flowers in beaked hawkweed, and 40-100 flowers in rough hawkweed.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), forest edges, meadows and fields

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
Leaf type
leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement
alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes
Flower type in flower heads
the flower head has ray flowers only, meaning all of the individual flowers of the flower head have a strap-shaped ray, which may or may not have teeth at the very tip of the ray
Ray flower color
yellow
Tuft or plume on fruit
at least a part of the plume is made up of fine bristles
Spines on plant
the plant has no spines
Leaf blade length
20–90 mm
Disk flower number
0
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Bract cycle number
    there are two main cycles of bracts
    Bract outer side hair type
    • the bracts are hairy on their outer surfaces, with hairs having glands (a swelling at the tip of the hair)
    • the bracts are hairy, with simple hairs on their outer surface
    • the bracts are not hairy on their outer surface
    Bract outer side hairs
    the bracts are hairy on their outer surfaces
    Disk flower color
    NA
    Disk flower lobe number
    NA
    Disk flower number
    0
    Disk flower proportions
    NA
    Disk flower reproductive parts
    NA
    Disk flower shape
    NA
    Flower head number
    • each flowering stem has four or more flower heads on it
    • each flowering stem has only one to three flower heads on it
    Flower head outer flowers
    at the outer edge of the flower head, each flower has a single enlarged lobe or strap
    Flower head platform
    the base has no bristles or papery scales
    Flower head profile
    the disk is flat or nearly flat across the top
    Flower type in flower heads
    the flower head has ray flowers only, meaning all of the individual flowers of the flower head have a strap-shaped ray, which may or may not have teeth at the very tip of the ray
    Height of flower head base
    7–10 mm
    Inflorescence shape
    the inflorescence is not flat-topped but appears rounded, with some flower heads distinctly higher than others
    Ovary cross-section
    the ovary has five or more corners in cross-section
    Ovary hair type
    the ovary has no hairs on it
    Ovary hairs
    the ovary has no hairs on it
    Ovary profile
    in profile, the ovary is another shape
    Ray flower color
    yellow
    Ray flower reproductive parts
    the ray flowers have both carpels and stamens
    Ray flowers
    11-15
    Ray length
    8–9 mm
    Reproductive system
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Ovary length in developed fruit
    3.5–4.5 mm
    Seed hair tuft color
    • the pappus hairs are tan to dark brown
    • the pappus hairs are white or off-white
    Seed hair tuft details
    the pappus hairs are hooked or barbed
    Seed hair tuft length
    4.5–7 mm
    Seed hair tuft tips
    the pappus hairs are slender
    Seed tuft type
    the pappus is made of very fine hairs or bristles
    Tuft or plume on fruit
    at least a part of the plume is made up of fine bristles
  • Glands or sap
    Sap
    the sap is clear and watery
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    the plant has one or more free-standing stems
    Horizontal rooting stem
    there are no stolons
    Plant lifespan
    the plant is perennial, it shows evidence of previous year's leaves, stems or stem bases
    Spines on plant
    the plant has no spines
    Underground organs
    there is a thickened taproot on the plant
  • Leaves
    Hairs on underside of leaf blade
    the underside of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy
    Hairs on upper side of leaf blade
    the upper side of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy
    Leaf arrangement
    alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Leaf blade base
    the leaf has a distinct petiole
    Leaf blade base shape
    • the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow
    • the base of the leaf blade is rounded
    Leaf blade edges
    the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes
    Leaf blade hairs
    the leaf blade has simple hairs with no glands, and not tangled or wooly
    Leaf blade length
    20–90 mm
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is oblanceolate (lance-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
    • the leaf blade is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade)
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is rounded, with no point
    Leaf blade width
    10–50 mm
    Leaf disposition
    the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem
    Leaf spines
    there are no spines on the leaf edges
    Leaf stalk
    the leaves have leaf stalks
    Leaf type
    leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Specific leaf type
    the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    • Rhode Island
    Specific habitat
    • edges of forests
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • meadows or fields
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Leaves on stem
    the flowering stem has no leaves above the base
    Stem internode hair direction
    the hairs point mostly upwards to outwards
    Stem internode hair type
    the hairs on the stem are plain, without glands or branches, and not tangled
    Stem internode hairs
    the stem has hairs between the nodes

Wetland Status

Occurs only in non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: UPL)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
absent

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Maine
extirpated (S-rank: SX), potentially extirpated (code: PE)
Massachusetts
unranked (S-rank: SNR)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Hieracium scabrum:
cypsela body truncate or scarcely narrowed to the circular apex and capitula with mostly 40-60 flowers (vs. H. gronovii, with the cypsela body tapering to an expanded, circular apex where the pappus bristles attach and capitula with 20-40 flowers).

Family

Asteraceae

Genus

Hieracium

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

4.  Hieracium gronovii L. N

beaked hawkweed. CT, MA, RI. Fields, open woodlands, clearings, usually on dry-mesic soils. Hieracium gronovii and H. scabrum are sometimes confused, especially in flower considering H. scabrum sometimes shows a tall, cylindrical capitulescence (like H. gronovii). The two species can be separated by flower number per capitulum and peduncle thickness. Hieracium gronovii has 20–40 flowers per capitulum and peduncles 0.3–0.5 (–0.6) mm thick. Hieracium scabrum has 40–100 flowers per capitulum and peduncles (0.4–) 0.5–0.9 mm thick. Reports of this species from me were based on a collection of Hieracium scabrum—1882, Furbish s.n. ( nebc!)

4×17. Hieracium gronovii × Hieracium venosum Hieracium ×‌marianum Willd. is a rare hawkweed hybrid in New England known from CT, MA, NH, VT. It is like H. gronovii in having a leafy stem, usually (2–) 3–6 leaves on the stem, but the capitulescence is corymb-like (rather than cylindrical and panicle-like). This nothospecies is further characterized by a persistent, loose, basal rosette of leaves present at anthesis, the leaf blades green or with a faint tinge of red on the veins, and cypsela bodies sometimes slightly tapered to the apex.