Liparis liliifolia (L.) L.C. Rich. ex Lindl.

lily-leaved wide-lipped orchid

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Lily-leaved wide-lipped orchid is globally secure, but its New England populations have apparently been in decline for over a century, with nearly ninety percent of populations having been lost. It is found in open woodlands with neutral to basic substrates.

Habitat

Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), forests, shrublands or thickets, swamps, woodlands

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Connecticut
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
Leaf arrangement
basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Number of leaves on stem
absent
Form of lower petal
the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
Lower petal outline
the labellum is simple in form
Main color of lower petal
  • blue to purple
  • green to brown
Nectar spur
there are no nectar spurs on the flower
Inflorescence type
the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
Lower petal characteristics
  • the labellum is fringed
  • the labellum is simple in form
Lower petal length
8–12 mm
Sepal length
8–11.5 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Flower bract length
    1–2 mm
    Flower petal color
    purple
    Flower symmetry
    there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)
    Flowering date
    • July
    • June
    Flowers per inflorescence
    5–31
    Form of lower petal
    the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
    Hairs on inflorescence axis
    the main stem of the inflorescence is hairless
    Inflorescence length
    40–150 mm
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
    Labellum position
    the labellum is in the lower position on the flower
    Length of flower stalk
    5–7 mm
    Length of peduncle
    90–250 mm
    Lower petal characteristics
    • the labellum is fringed
    • the labellum is simple in form
    Lower petal length
    8–12 mm
    Lower petal outline
    the labellum is simple in form
    Lower petal strongly red-veined
    • no
    • yes
    Main color of lower petal
    • blue to purple
    • green to brown
    Nectar spur
    there are no nectar spurs on the flower
    Nectar spur length
    0 mm
    Number of stamens
    1
    Orientation of side petals
    the lateral petals slant somewhat downward
    Self-pollinating flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on this plant
    Sepal length
    8–11.5 mm
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Spots on lower petal
    no
    Spur opening membrane
    NA
    Spur opening shape
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Seed capsule orientation
    the capsule points upwards or is angled outwards
  • Growth form
    Plant green or not
    the plant is chlorophyllous (it has green parts)
    Roots
    the rhizomes do not resemble coral
    Underground organs
    • the plant has one or more swollen storage organs underground, such as bulbs, tubers or corms
    • there are only slender roots on the plant
    • this plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Bract relative length
    the bract is shorter than the associated flower
    Features of leaves
    the leaf does not have any of the mentioned special features
    Leaf arrangement
    basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
    Leaf blade edges
    the edges of the leaf blade have no teeth
    Leaf blade length
    40–180 mm
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    2–2.1
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    20–85 mm
    Leaves during flowering
    there are leaves on the plant when it is flowering
    Number of bracts on stem
    0
    Number of leaves on stem
    absent
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Connecticut
    • Massachusetts
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • forests
    • man-made or disturbed habitats
    • shrublands or thickets
    • swamps
    • woodlands

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
present
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
present
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Connecticut
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)
Massachusetts
rare (S-rank: S2), threatened (code: T)
Rhode Island
state historical (code: SH)
Vermont
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), threatened (code: T)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Liparis loeselii:
labellum green to yellow-green or yellow-white, 4–5.5 mm long, and fruiting pedicel 3–7 mm long, shorter than the capsule (vs. L. liliifolia, with the labellum brown-purple, 8–12 mm long, and fruiting pedicel 11–18 mm long, nearly as long as or slightly longer than the capsule).

Synonyms

  • Leptorchis liliifolia (L.) Kuntze
  • Malaxis liliifolia (L.) Sw.
  • Ophrys liliifolia L.

Family

Orchidaceae

Genus

Liparis

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Liparis liliifolia (L.) L.C. Rich ex Lindl. NC

lily-leaved wide-lipped orchid. Leptorchis liliifolia (L.) Kuntze; Malaxis liliifolia (L.) Sw.; Ophrys liliifolia L. • CT, MA, RI, VT. Dry-mesic to wet-mesic forests and woodlands, often on soils influenced by middle to high-pH bedrock such as limestone, trap, and sandstone. Reports of this species in NH are based on a fruiting specimen of Liparis loeselii.