Neottia auriculata (Wieg.) Szlach.

auricled twayblade

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Auricled twayblade is a rare orchid with a restricted distribution that includes northern New England, where it is found on sandy alluvial deposits on stream banks and riparian forests. It rarely hybridizes with broad-leaved twayblade (Neottia convallarioides), producing intermediate plants.

Habitat

Bogs, fens, floodplain (river or stream floodplains), forests, shores of rivers or lakes

Characteristics

Habitat
  • terrestrial
  • wetlands
New England state
  • Maine
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
Leaf arrangement
  • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
  • opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
Number of leaves on stem
  • three
  • two
Form of lower petal
the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
Lower petal outline
the labellum is lobed but not fringed
Main color of lower petal
  • green to brown
  • other
  • white
Nectar spur
there are no nectar spurs on the flower
Inflorescence type
the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
Lower petal characteristics
the labellum is lobed
Lower petal length
6–11 mm
Sepal length
3–4 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Flower bract length
    2–7 mm
    Flower petal color
    white
    Flower symmetry
    there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)
    Flowering date
    • August
    • July
    • June
    Flowers per inflorescence
    5–20
    Form of lower petal
    the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
    Hairs on flower stalk
    the flower stalk has no hairs on it
    Hairs on inflorescence axis
    at least some of the hairs on the main stem of the inflorescence have glands
    Inflorescence length
    20–100 mm
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
    Labellum position
    the labellum is in the lower position on the flower
    Length of flower stalk
    2.5–5 mm
    Length of narrowed base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lower petal characteristics
    the labellum is lobed
    Lower petal length
    6–11 mm
    Lower petal outline
    the labellum is lobed but not fringed
    Lower petal strongly red-veined
    no
    Main color of lower petal
    • green to brown
    • other
    • white
    Nectar spur
    there are no nectar spurs on the flower
    Nectar spur length
    0 mm
    Number of stamens
    1
    Orientation of side petals
    • the lateral petals are angled steeply upwards
    • the lateral petals slant outward
    Self-pollinating flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on this plant
    Sepal length
    3–4 mm
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Spots on lower petal
    no
    Spur opening membrane
    NA
    Spur opening shape
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Seed capsule orientation
    the capsule points upwards or is angled outwards
  • Growth form
    Plant green or not
    the plant is chlorophyllous (it has green parts)
    Roots
    the rhizomes do not resemble coral
    Underground organs
    there are only slender roots on the plant
  • Leaves
    Bract relative length
    the bract is shorter than the associated flower
    Features of leaves
    the leaf does not have any of the mentioned special features
    Leaf arrangement
    • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    • opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
    Leaf blade edges
    the edges of the leaf blade have no teeth
    Leaf blade length
    25–60 mm
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    1.4–1.7
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is orbicular (roughly circular, as wide as long)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    15–42 mm
    Leaves during flowering
    there are leaves on the plant when it is flowering
    Number of leaves on stem
    • three
    • two
  • Place
    Habitat
    • terrestrial
    • wetlands
    New England state
    • Maine
    • New Hampshire
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • bogs
    • fens
    • forests
    • river or stream floodplains
    • shores of rivers or lakes

Wetland Status

Usually occurs in wetlands, but occasionally in non-wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: FACW)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
present
Massachusetts
absent
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Maine
rare (S-rank: S2), threatened (code: T)
New Hampshire
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)
Vermont
extremely rare (S-rank: S1)

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Neottia convallarioides

Synonyms

  • Bifolium auriculatum (Wieg.) Nieuwl.
  • Listera auriculata Wieg.
  • Ophrys auriculata (Wieg.) House

Family

Orchidaceae

Genus

Neottia

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Neottia auriculata (Wieg.) Szlach. NC

auricled twayblade. Bifolium auriculatum (Wieg.) Nieuwl.; Listera auriculata Wieg.; Ophrys auriculata (Wieg.) House • ME, NH, VT. Stream banks, riparian forests of small to large rivers, often in alluvium and commonly associated with Alnus incana, rarely in open peatlands.

1×3. Neottia auriculata × Neottia convallarioides Neottia ×‌veltmanii (Case) Baumbach is a rare twayblade hybrid known from ME but is to be expected elsewhere in northern New England. It is usually associated with one or both parents (i.e., it is not typically found alone). It has the basally narrowed labellum of N. convallarioides and, like that species, has stipitate glands on the pedicels and ovary. However, the stipitate glands on these parts are shorter and sparser than those of the inflorescence axis (in N. convallarioides, the stipitate glands are similar in length and ± similar in density on the glandular portions of the inflorescence). Further, the hybrid shows a small pair of outward pointing auricles at the very base of the lip (rather than a small pair of teeth distal to the narrow portion of the labellum).