Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach

southern twayblade

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Southern twayblade is a diminutive orchid with a disjunct distribution in and around Florida and the Gulf Coast, then jumps to Pennsylvania, New York, and northwestern Vermont. In this area there are a few populations found on open and forested peat bogs. It may be more common than this would indicate, but the plant is small and inconspicuous, and fades rapidly after setting seed, so it is difficult to find.

Habitat

Bogs, swamps

Characteristics

Habitat
wetlands
New England state
Vermont
Leaf arrangement
  • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
  • opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
  • whorled: there are three or more leaves per node along the stem
Number of leaves on stem
  • four
  • three
  • two
Form of lower petal
the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
Lower petal outline
the labellum is lobed but not fringed
Main color of lower petal
  • blue to purple
  • green to brown
  • pink to red
Nectar spur
there are no nectar spurs on the flower
Inflorescence type
the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
Lower petal characteristics
the labellum is lobed
Lower petal length
6–12 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Flower petal color
    • green
    • purple
    Flower symmetry
    there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)
    Flowering date
    • July
    • June
    • May
    Flowers per inflorescence
    5–25
    Form of lower petal
    the labellum does not have a pouch-like shape
    Hairs on flower stalk
    the flower stalk has at least some hairs with glands at their bases or tips
    Hairs on inflorescence axis
    at least some of the hairs on the main stem of the inflorescence have glands
    Inflorescence length
    45–110 mm
    Inflorescence type
    the inflorescence is a raceme (a long unbranched stem with stalked flowers growing along it)
    Labellum position
    the labellum is in the lower position on the flower
    Length of narrowed base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lobes at base of lower petal
    0 mm
    Lower petal characteristics
    the labellum is lobed
    Lower petal length
    6–12 mm
    Lower petal outline
    the labellum is lobed but not fringed
    Lower petal strongly red-veined
    no
    Main color of lower petal
    • blue to purple
    • green to brown
    • pink to red
    Nectar spur
    there are no nectar spurs on the flower
    Nectar spur length
    0 mm
    Number of stamens
    1
    Orientation of side petals
    • the lateral petals are angled steeply upwards
    • the lateral petals slant outward
    Self-pollinating flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on this plant
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Spots on lower petal
    no
    Spur opening membrane
    NA
    Spur opening shape
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Seed capsule orientation
    the capsule points upwards or is angled outwards
  • Growth form
    Plant green or not
    the plant is chlorophyllous (it has green parts)
    Roots
    the rhizomes do not resemble coral
    Underground organs
    there are only slender roots on the plant
  • Leaves
    Bract relative length
    the bract is shorter than the associated flower
    Features of leaves
    the leaf does not have any of the mentioned special features
    Leaf arrangement
    • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    • opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
    • whorled: there are three or more leaves per node along the stem
    Leaf blade edges
    the edges of the leaf blade have no teeth
    Leaf blade length
    13–40 mm
    Leaf blade length to width ratio
    1.9–2.6
    Leaf blade shape
    • the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade tip
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is caudate (has a very long tail-like projection ending in a point)
    • the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed)
    Leaf blade width
    5–21 mm
    Leaves during flowering
    there are leaves on the plant when it is flowering
    Number of bracts on stem
    0
    Number of leaves on stem
    • four
    • three
    • two
  • Place
    Habitat
    wetlands
    New England state
    Vermont
    Specific habitat
    • bogs
    • swamps

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

None

Native to North America?

Yes

Sometimes Confused With

Neottia cordata

Family

Orchidaceae

Genus

Neottia

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

2.  Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach NC

southern twayblade. Bifolium australe (Lindl.) Nieuwl.; Diphryllum bifolium Raf.; Listera australis Lindl.; Ophrys australis (Lindl.) House • VT. Growing on Sphagnum in forested and open bogs.