Pterospora andromedea Nutt.

pine-drops

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Pine-drops is a nonphotosynthetic, parasitic plant that obtains nutrients from its host via mutualistic fungal hyphae that form connections between the roots of the parasite and its host plant. In New England this species is represented by a few populations each in New Hampshire and Vermont, in coniferous or mixed woods over limestone or clay.

Habitat

Forests

Characteristics

Habitat
terrestrial
New England state
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
Flower petal color
  • white
  • yellow
Leaf type
  • NA
  • the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement
  • NA
  • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges
  • NA
  • the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
Flower symmetry
there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
Number of sepals, petals or tepals
there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
Fusion of sepals and petals
  • both the petals and sepals are separate and not fused
  • the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube
Stamen number
10
Fruit type (general)
the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
Fruit length
5–10 mm
Show All Characteristics
  • Clonal plantlets
    Bulbils
    the plant does not appear to have bulbils
    Bulblets replace flowers
    there are no bulblets where the flowers are located
  • Flowers
    Anther opening
    the anthers have narrow slits or furrows that run lengthwise along the anthers
    Anther spurs
    there are spurs on the anthers
    Anther tube length
    0 mm
    Calyx symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is radially symmetrical)
    Carpels fused
    the carpels are fused to one another
    Cleistogamous flowers
    there are no cleistogamous flowers on the plan
    Corolla palate
    no
    Corona lobe length
    0 mm
    Epicalyx
    the flower does not have an epicalyx
    Epicalyx number of parts
    0
    Filament surface
    the filament is smooth, with no hairs or scales
    Flower description
    the flower has a superior ovary, and lacks a hypanthium
    Flower orientation
    the flower bends downwards or hangs downwards
    Flower petal color
    • white
    • yellow
    Flower reproductive parts
    the flower has both pollen- and seed-producing parts
    Flower symmetry
    there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
    Flowers sunken into stem
    no
    Form of style
    • the style is knob-like at the tip, and unbranched
    • the style is lobed at the tip, and unbranched
    Fringed petal edges
    the petals are fringed
    Fused stamen clusters
    NA
    Fusion of sepals and petals
    • both the petals and sepals are separate and not fused
    • the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube
    Hairs on flower stalk
    the flower stalk has hairs on it
    Hairs on inflorescence
    at least some of the hairs on the axis of the inflorescence have glands
    Horns in hoods (Asclepias)
    NA
    Hypanthium
    the flower does not have a hypanthium
    Hypanthium length
    0 mm
    Inflorescence length
    150–1700 mm
    Inflorescence one-sided
    the flowers are arrayed in a spiral around the inflorescence axis or branches, or occur singly, or in several ranks
    Inner tepals (Rumex)
    NA
    Interior flower disk
    the flower has an interior disc
    Nectar spur
    the flower has no nectar spurs
    Number of branches in umbel
    0
    Number of carpels
    5
    Number of pistils
    1
    Number of sepals, petals or tepals
    there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
    Number of styles
    1
    Ovary position
    the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment
    Perianth shape
    the perianth is urceolate (urn-shaped, with a swollen tube contracted near the top, then slightly expanded in a narrow rim)
    Petal and sepal arrangement
    the flower includes two cycles of petal- or sepal-like structures
    Petal and sepal colors
    • white
    • yellow
    Petal appearance
    the petals are thin and delicate, and pigmented (colored other than green or brown)
    Petal folding in bud
    the petals in bud are rolled like an umbrella, each petal having one edge tucked inside and the other edge exposed (convolute)
    Petal folds or pleats
    the petals of the flower do not have folds or plaits
    Petal hairs (Viola)
    NA
    Petal hairs on inner/upper surface
    there are no hairs on the inner/upper petal surface
    Petal length
    6–9 mm
    Petal length relative to sepals
    the petals are longer than the sepals
    Petal number
    5
    Petal tip shape
    the petal tip is lobed or fringed
    Petal tips (Cuscuta)
    NA
    Raceme attachment (Veronica)
    NA
    Reproductive system
    all the flowers have both carpels and stamens (synoecious)
    Scales inside corolla
    no
    Sepal and petal color
    the sepals are different from the petals
    Sepal appearance
    the sepals are green or brown, and leaf-like in texture
    Sepal appendages
    the sepals do not have appendages on them
    Sepal appendages (Oenothera)
    NA
    Sepal auricles
    the sepals have no auricles
    Sepal color
    pink to red
    Sepal features
    one or more sepals have glands that are raised from the surface by a stalk
    Sepal length
    4–6 mm
    Sepal number
    5
    Sepal orientation
    the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward
    Sepal shape
    • the sepal outline is lanceolate (lance-shaped; narrow, gradually tapering from the base to the tip)
    • the sepal outline is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Sepal uniformity
    all the sepals are about the same size
    Sepals fused only to sepals
    the sepals are separate from one another
    Spur length
    0 mm
    Spur number
    NA
    Stamen length
    3–5 mm
    Stamen number
    10
    Stamen position relative to petals
    NA
    Stamen relative length
    anything
    Stamens fused
    the stamens are not attached to one another
    Stigma position
    the stigmas are positioned at the tip of the style
    Style length
    1–3 mm
    Style petal-like
    the styles are not petal-like
    Style relative length
    the stigma does not protrude beyond the mouth of the corolla
    Surface of ovary
    the ovary surface has no points, bumps or wrinkles
    Umbel flower reproductive parts
    NA
    Upper lip of bilabiate corolla
    NA
  • Fruits or seeds
    Achene relative orientation
    NA
    Achene shape
    NA
    Achene surface (Polygonum)
    NA
    Achene type
    NA
    Berry color
    NA
    Capsule color (Viola)
    NA
    Capsule ribs
    the capsule has four prominent ribs or wings
    Capsule splitting
    the capsule splits by four main valves, teeth or pores
    Carpel beak length
    0 mm
    Fruit (pyxis) dehiscence
    NA
    Fruit cross-section
    the fruit is round in cross-section
    Fruit features (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Fruit length
    5–10 mm
    Fruit length relative to sepals
    the fruit is longer than its associated sepals
    Fruit locules
    five
    Fruit shape
    the fruit is spherical
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is a capsule (splits along two or more seams, apical teeth or pores when dry, to release two or more seeds)
    Fruit width
    7–14 mm
    Legumes (Fabaceae)
    NA
    Mericarp length
    0 mm
    Mericarp segment shape (Desmodium)
    NA
    Other markings on berry
    NA
    Ovary stipe
    the ovary or fruit does not have a stipe
    Ovary stipe length
    0 mm
    Placenta arrangement
    the plant has axile placentation, in which the ovules are attached where the septa of a compound ovary are united, usually on the central axis, or to the septa themselves
    Rows of seeds in fruit (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Schizocarpic fruit compression
    NA
    Schizocarpic fruit segments
    0
    Seed length
    0.2–0.5 mm
    Seed number
    At least 100
    Seed relative length
    the seed is about as long as it is wide
    Seed surface
    the seed is smooth or without clear markings
    Seeds comose
    no hairs
    Septum in fruit (Brassicaceae)
    NA
    Wings on fruit
    the fruit does not have wings on it
    prickles on fruits
    the fruits do not have thorn-like defensive structures
  • Glands or sap
    Glands on leaf blade
    • NA
    • the leaf blades do not have glandular dots or scales
    Sap
    the sap is clear and watery
    Sap color
    the sap is clear
  • Growth form
    Growth form
    the plant is an herb (it has self-supporting stems)
    Horizontal rooting stem
    the plant does not have stolons
    Lifespan
    the plant lives more than two years
    Parasitism
    the plant is parasitic on other plants (partially or completely dependent on other plants to supply nutrients)
    Plant color
    the plant lacks green pigments, even on the leaves or young stems
    Plants darken when dry
    yes
    Spines on plant
    the plant has no spines
    Underground organs
    there are only slender roots on the plant
  • Leaves
    Bracteole edges
    NA
    Bracteole length
    0 mm
    Bracteole number (Apiaceae)
    0
    Bracteole shape
    NA
    Bracteoles
    there are no bracteoles on the plant
    Bracts in plantain (Plantago)
    NA
    Final leaf segment length (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Final leaf segment length to width ratio (compound lvs only)
    0
    Final leaf segment width (compound lvs only)
    0 mm
    Floral bract texture
    the floral bracts are thin, dry and papery, possibly with a narrow green stripe at the center
    Floral bracts
    the flower has one or more bracts associated with it
    Flower bract length
    20–35 mm
    Hairs on leaf stalk
    NA
    Hooked hairs on underside of leaf
    • NA
    • no
    Inflated hairs on leaf
    • NA
    • the leaf blade does not have inflated hairs on it
    Leaf arrangement
    • NA
    • alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
    Leaf blade base symmetry
    • NA
    • the leaf blade base is symmetrical
    Leaf blade bloom
    • NA
    • the underside of the leaf has no noticeable bloom
    Leaf blade edges
    • NA
    • the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
    Leaf blade flatness
    • NA
    • the leaf is flat (planar) at the edges
    Leaf blade shape
    • NA
    • the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends)
    • the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends)
    Leaf blade surface colors
    • NA
    • the upper side of the leaf blade is relatively uniform in color
    Leaf duration
    the leaves drop off in winter (or they whither but persist on the plant)
    Leaf form
    • NA
    • the leaves are small and thin and lack leaf stalks
    Leaf sheath length
    0 mm
    Leaf shiny
    • NA
    • the upper side of the leaf is dull or slightly shiny
    Leaf spines
    • NA
    • there are no spines on the leaf edges
    Leaf stalk
    • NA
    • the leaves have no leaf stalks, but attach directly to the stem
    Leaf stalk attachment to leaf
    NA
    Leaf stalk base
    NA
    Leaf stalk length
    0 mm
    Leaf teeth and lobes
    • NA
    • the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
    Leaf tip
    the tip of the leaf blade is acuminate (tapers to a long, thin point)
    Leaf tufts in axils
    • NA
    • there are no clusters of smaller leaves growing out of axils
    Leaf type
    • NA
    • the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Leaf types
    • NA
    • There is a gradual change in appearance of the leaves from the base (or near the base) of the plant to those from further up on the stem, with leaves progressively changing as one moves higher on the stem (often becoming shorter, or less toothed/lobed, and/or with shorter petioles).
    Leaf variation
    • NA
    • the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem
    Leaflet number
    0
    Leaflet petiolules
    NA
    Pinnately compound leaf type
    NA
    Specific leaf type
    • NA
    • the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
    Stipels
    NA
    Stipule edges
    NA
    Stipule features
    NA
    Stipule fused to leaf stalk
    NA
    Stipule length
    0 mm
    Stipule shape
    NA
    Stipules
    there are no stipules on the plant
  • Place
    Habitat
    terrestrial
    New England state
    • New Hampshire
    • Vermont
    Specific habitat
    forests
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Branched tendrils
    NA
    Direction of stem hairs
    • NA
    • the hairs point mostly upwards to outwards
    Flowering stem cross-section
    the flowering stem is circular, or with lots of small angles so that it is roughly circular
    Flowering stem width
    5–15 mm
    Hair between stem nodes
    • NA
    • the stem has hairs between the nodes
    Hairs between stem nodes
    • NA
    • at least some of the hairs on the stem have glands
    Hooked hairs on stem between nodes
    • NA
    • no
    Leaves on stem
    the flowering stem has no leaves above the base
    Stem bloom
    • NA
    • there is no powdery or waxy film on the stem
    Stem hair distribution
    • NA
    • the hairs on the stem are distributed more of less uniformly
    Stem nodes swollen
    • NA
    • the stem is not swollen at the nodes
    Stem orientation
    • NA
    • the stems are upright or angled outwards
    Stem roughness between nodes
    • NA
    • the stem does not feel rough
    Stem spacing
    • NA
    • the plant is solitary, or a few plants are growing together
    Stem succulence
    • NA
    • the stems are succulent
    Tendril origin
    NA
    Tendrils
    the plant does not have tendrils
    Wings on stem
    • NA
    • the stem does not have wings on it

Wetland Status

Not classified

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
absent
New Hampshire
present
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
present

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

New Hampshire
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)
Vermont
extremely rare (S-rank: S1), endangered (code: E)

Native to North America?

Yes

Family

Ericaceae

Genus

Pterospora

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

1.  Pterospora andromedea Nutt. NC

pine-drops. NH, VT. Deciduous to mixed evergreen-deciduous forests.