Schoenoplectus hallii (Gray) S.G. Sm.

Hall's bulrush

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New England Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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North America Distribution

Adapted from BONAP data

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Facts About

Hall's bulrush is currently unknown in New England, its only historical populations having disappeared from two pond shores in eastern Massachusetts.

Habitat

Shores of rivers or lakes

Characteristics

Habitat
  • aquatic
  • wetlands
New England state
Massachusetts
Stem shape in cross-section
the stem is round or oval in cross-section
Leaf blade width
0.2–1 mm
Leaf blade cross-section
the leaf blade is flat or rolled in at the edges
Inflorescence position
the inflorescence appears to come from the side of the plant because the involucral bract at its base looks like an extension of the main stem
Inflorescence branching
  • the inflorescence is branched
  • the inflorescence is on one or more stems with no branches
Fruit type (general)
the fruit is like a seed, and surrounded by scales
Fruit length
1.3–2.5 mm
Leaf position on plant
some leaf attachment points are above the midpoint of the stem
Perianth composition
there is no perianth on the plant
Fruit cross-section
  • the fruit is lenticular (lens-shaped) in cross-section
  • the fruit is triangular to terete (circular) in cross-section
Show All Characteristics
  • Flowers
    Anther length
    0.4–0.6 mm
    Floral bristle color
    NA
    Floral bristle number
    0
    Floral bristle relative length
    NA
    Floral bristles
    NA
    Floral scale hairs
    the floral scales have hairs on them
    Floral scale length
    2.5–5 mm
    Floral scale shape
    the floral scales are ovate (roughly egg-shaped)
    Floral scale translucent
    the floral scales are translucent
    Inflorescence bract angle
    the bracts are vertical or angled only slightly outwards
    Inflorescence bract number
    there is just one bract on the inflorescence
    Inflorescence bract position (Sparganium)
    NA
    Inflorescence bracts
    there is only one bract, and it looks like a continuation of the stem
    Inflorescence branching
    • the inflorescence is branched
    • the inflorescence is on one or more stems with no branches
    Inflorescence crowding
    • the inflorescence is at least somewhat spread out, with at least one branch coming from the main stem
    • the inflorescence is crowded together in one tight cluster
    Inflorescence position
    the inflorescence appears to come from the side of the plant because the involucral bract at its base looks like an extension of the main stem
    Inflorescence shape
    the aggregations within the inflorescence are roughly circular (not flattened) in cross-section
    Inflorescence type
    • there are two or more flowers, spikes or flower clusters on a branched inflorescence
    • there is one spike or raceme at the tip of the stem
    Perianth composition
    there is no perianth on the plant
    Stamen number
    3
    Stigma number
    2
    Style division
    the top two thirds of the style is divided
    floral bristle barbs
    NA
    plantlets budding at flower bases
    no
  • Fruits or seeds
    Achene beak length
    0.1–0.3 mm
    Achene surface texture
    the achene has tiny wrinkles that run cross-wise across the achene
    Achene tubercle relative width
    NA
    Achene tubercle width
    0 mm
    Capsule relative length
    NA
    Fruit cross-section
    • the fruit is lenticular (lens-shaped) in cross-section
    • the fruit is triangular to terete (circular) in cross-section
    Fruit length
    1.3–2.5 mm
    Fruit type (general)
    the fruit is like a seed, and surrounded by scales
    Fruit type (specific)
    the fruit is an achene (dry, seed-like fruit) without a tubercle (a swelling or projection, usually of a different color or texture)
    Locules in capsule
    NA
    Seed length
    0 mm
    Seed tail relative length
    0 mm
    Seed tails
    NA
    Tubercle height
    0 mm
  • Growth form
    Lifespan
    the plant lives only a single year or less
    Rhizome thickness
    1 mm
    Underground organs
    the plant has a rhizome (a horizontal underground stem with roots growing from it)
  • Leaves
    Auricle length
    0 mm
    Auricle texture
    NA
    Auricles
    there are no auricles on the leaf sheath
    Leaf blade cross-section
    the leaf blade is flat or rolled in at the edges
    Leaf blade length
    1–200 mm
    Leaf blade width
    0.2–1 mm
    Leaf form
    all the leaves hold their form out of water
    Leaf position on plant
    some leaf attachment points are above the midpoint of the stem
    Leaf septa
    the leaf blades do not have transverse septa
    Leaf sheath hairs
    the leaf sheathes are without hairs
    Pedicel length (Typha)
    0 mm
    Stem leaf blade ligules
    the plant has ligules at the leaf blade bases
    Stem leaf blades
    • there are fully-developed leaves with leaf blades on the main stem
    • there are no leaves on the main stem, or there is a small tooth or tiny blade, or a leaf sheath with no blade
    Width of seed-producing inflorescence
    2.5–3.5 mm
  • Place
    Habitat
    • aquatic
    • wetlands
    New England state
    Massachusetts
    Specific habitat
    shores of rivers or lakes
  • Stem, shoot, branch
    Plant height
    5–80 cm
    Stem shape in cross-section
    the stem is round or oval in cross-section
    Stem texture near tip
    the stem feels smooth near the tip
    Stem thickness at midpoint
    0.5–1 mm

Wetland Status

Occurs only in wetlands. (Wetland indicator code: OBL)

New England Distribution and Conservation Status

Distribution

Connecticut
absent
Maine
absent
Massachusetts
present
New Hampshire
absent
Rhode Island
absent
Vermont
absent

Conservation Status

Exact status definitions can vary from state to state. For details, please check with your state.

Massachusetts
historical (S-rank: SH), #NAME? (code: #NAME?)

Native to North America?

Yes

Synonyms

  • Scirpus hallii Gray
  • Scirpus supinus L. var. hallii (Gray) Gray

Family

Cyperaceae

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Information from Dichotomous Key of Flora Novae Angliae

4.  Schoenoplectus hallii (Gray) S.G. Sm. NC

Hall’s bulrush. Scirpus hallii Gray; S. supinus L. var. hallii (Gray) Gray • MA; historically known from two pond shores in the eastern portion of the state. Sandy or peaty draw-down pond shores.